vor 1 Jahr

Issue 06/2021

  • Text
  • Cellulose
  • Bags
  • Flexibles
  • Films
  • Coatings
  • Co2
  • Wwwbioplasticsmagazinecom
  • Packaging
  • Sustainable
  • Products
  • Renewable
  • Recycling
  • Carbon
  • Biobased
  • Plastics
  • Materials
  • Bioplastics
Highlights: Coating Films, Flexibles, Bags Basics: Cellulose based bioplastics

Opinion capacities, but

Opinion capacities, but this is a matter of time. Several materials are used for matting agents in coatings to replace silica and resulting in much better transparency and haptic properties (soft feel). These haptic properties are one of the USPs of these materials. Finally, due to the enormous amount of plastic microfibres ending up in our oceans every year many parties are actively involved in developing fibres from natural PHA-materials for both woven (textiles) and non-woven applications. Although the first applications are on the market, it is still small and application developments are in an early stage, especially for textile applications. There are fibres for textile applications on the market, but those are based on compounds that also contain other polymers in addition to natural PHA-material, so far. 2. Non-traditional plastic applications Several non-traditional plastic applications have been developed and result in business, given the long-known role and appearance of natural PHA-materials in natural habitats. One could consider applications in animal feed, medical care (both humans and animals), denitrification, artificial turf, and cosmetics for instance. Denitrification is required when there is too much ammonia in a certain environment (wastewater treatment, aquaria, shrimp, fish and turtle farms, etc.). Ammonia turns into nitrates and nitrites by oxidation. Natural PHAmaterials are an excellent carbon source to reduce the nitrates and nitrites to nitrogen or N 2 because through biodegradation it provides the carbon for this denitrification process. Today, material is being sold for these applications. A completely different segment is to use natural PHAmaterials for medical applications. Within the human body one can use microspheres for the cultivation of stem cells. These have a degradation time of about one year, while the degradation product helps cell growth. They can be used for bone/cartilage regeneration, skin damage repair (wound closures), nerve guidance conduits, among others. Scaffoldings made from such materials have been demonstrated to take care of bone repair, but also repair of a damaged oesophagus. The company Tepha (Lexington, Massachusetts, USA) makes several products for the abovementioned purposes for about 10 years and Medpha (Beijing, China) is also active in this field and further extends it. One of the newer applications is to use these materials for controlled drug delivery. Artificial sports fields like those for soccer always use a filler. Although often ground old car tires have been used for this application for a while, it has become unacceptable for health and environmental safety reasons. Today also natural PHA materials are used for artificial turf infill (FIFA approved). PHB and other natural PHA-materials are or can be used as feed or feed additives for animals: Feeding PHB to aquatic organisms has been well studied [6, 7], confirming that PHB had a positive impact on growth, survival, intestinal microbial structure, and disease resistance of aquatic animals, serving as an energy source for European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax juveniles [7], helping to increase the lipid content of the whole body [6]. PHB was also used as an alternative to antibiotics for protecting shrimps from pathogenic Vibrio campbelli [8], it was observed to induce heat shock protein (Hsp) expression and contribute partially to the protection of shrimp against V. campbelli [9], improving the growth performance, digestive enzyme activity, and function of the immune system of rainbow trout [9], enhancing the body weights of Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis juveniles [10]. PHB also improved the survival of prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii larvae [11], blue mussel Mytilus edulis larvae [12] and Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus juveniles [13]. PHB can not only affect marine organisms but also large livestock. The feed composition shapes the gut bacterial communities and affects the health of large livestock [14, 15]. It is concluded that PHB has no negative effect on the growth of marine animals like large yellow croakers and popular land animals like weaned piglets with sensitivity to foods. In the future, plastics made of PHB, perhaps including its copolymers PHBV and P3HB4HB, can be used again as feed additives for animals. More positively, plastics made of natural PHA-materials could replace petrochemical plastics to avoid the death of marine or land animals that mistakenly consume plastic packaging garbage [16]. Based on the origin of this natural PHA-materials platform and on the application examples discussed here, we are convinced that this new material platform is a sleeping giant [5] with a very promising future. References: [1] Michael Carus, Which polymers are “natural polymers” in the sense of single-use plastic ban?, Open letter to DG Environment signed by 18 scientific experts, 8 October 2019. [2] Jan Ravenstijn and Phil Van Trump, What about recycling of PHApolymers?, bioplastics MAGAZINE, Volume 15, 03/20, 30-31. [3] Bruno De Wilde, Biodegradation: one concept, many nuances, Presentation at the 2 nd PHA-platform World Congress, 22 September 2021. [4] Verena Bauchmüller, BioSinn: Products for which biodegradation makes sense, Report from nova Institute and IKT-Stuttgart, 25 May 2021. [5] Eligio Martini, The compounding will be the success of the Sleeping Giant, Presentation at the 2 nd PHA-platform World Congress, 22 September 2021. [6] Najdegerami, E. H., Aquacult. Res. 2015, 46, 801-812. [7] De Schryver, P., Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2010, 86, 1535-1541. [8] Defoirdt, T., Halet, D., Vervaeren, H., Boon, N., Van de Wiele, T., Sorgeloos, P., Bossier, P., Verstraete, W., Environ. Microbiol. 2007, 9, 445-452. [9] Baruah, K., Sci. Rep. 2015, 5, 9427. [10] Sui, L., Ma, G., Aquacult. Res. 2016, 47, 3644-3652. [11] Thai, T. Q., Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2014, 98, 5205-5215. [12] Hung, N. V., Aquaculture 2015, 446, 318-324. [13] Situmorang, M. L., Vet. Microbiol. 2016, 182, 44-49. [14] Lalles, J. P., Proc. Nutr. Soc. 2007, 66, 260-268. [51] Ma, N., Front Immunol. 2018, 9. [16] Wang, X., Biotechnol J. 2019, e1900132. 36 bioplastics MAGAZINE [06/21] Vol. 16

7 th PLA World Congress EARLY JUNE 2022 MUNICH › GERMANY organized by Call for papers is now open PLA is a versatile bioplastics raw material from renewable resources. It is being used for films and rigid packaging, for fibres in woven and non-woven applications. Automotive, consumer electronics and other industries are thoroughly investigating and even already applying PLA. New methods of polymerizing, compounding or blending of PLA have broadened the range of properties and thus the range of possible applications. That‘s why bioplastics MAGAZINE is now organizing the 7 th PLA World Congress on: Early June 2022 in Munich / Germany Experts from all involved fields will share their knowledge and contribute to a comprehensive overview of today‘s opportunities and challenges and discuss the possibilities, limitations and future prospects of PLA for all kind of applications. Like the five previous congresses the 7 th PLA World Congress will also offer excellent networking opportunities for all delegates and speakers as well as exhibitors of the table-top exhibition. Based on the good experices with the hybrid format (bio!TOY and PHA World Congress 2021) we will offer this format also for future conferences, hoping the pandemic does no longer force us to. So the participation at the 7 th PLA World Congress will be possible on-site as well as online. bioplastics MAGAZINE [06/21] Vol. 16 37

bioplastics MAGAZINE ePaper