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Issue 05/2022

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From Science & Research

From Science & Research Biopolymers – Materials, Properties, Sustainability Joint project planned for November 2022 The Kunststoff-Institut Lüdenscheid (Germany) is planning a new joint project for autumn 2022 that will examine application possibilities of biopolymers. The topic of sustainability is the core issue of the current time, which the plastics industry in particular has to face. Every company is required to produce more sustainably and minimise its CO 2 footprint. The material factor is the main aspect of component production, not only in terms of costs but also in terms of energy. Therefore, the increase in sustainability must necessarily lead to the material input. The establishment of a circular economy is an option, but not the solution for every company or product. The use of biobased and/or biodegradable polymers, possibly in combination with the circular economy, can be a solution. But which materials and manufacturers are there? What properties do these materials have and to what extent can they be modified and where are the limits? Which materials come into question at all? What are the recycling options? And one of the main questions in this context is: Are these materials really more sustainable? With the help of this project, the participants should be able to decide for themselves which materials can be used for their own products and whether they increase the sustainability of the product. Therefore, both basic and product-related questions concerning the applicability of biopolymers are to be answered. At the beginning of the project, definitions of terms and current market developments will be presented. An overview of the different types of biopolymers, their properties, raw material source, biobased content, or biodegradability as well as processing characteristics and a cost-technical consideration is needed to get a better basis for decisions. Furthermore, different biobased additives, wood and natural fibres, and the advantages and disadvantages of different disposal routes will be highlighted. In order to generate the greatest possible benefit for the project participants, five different kinds of biopolymers will be selected for a more in-depth examination and research. In this regard, the project wants to show which raw material manufacturers offer these materials and which portfolio of additivation possibilities they have. In addition, research will be carried out on the selected polymer sorts for information on the sustainability of the raw material sources, the CO 2 equivalents and the possible end-of-life options. Most companies that are new to this group of materials will also have questions about how to communicate and promote a product made of bioplastics, as many have already heard more or less about problems in this field. With this in mind, various product examples are also searched for, on the basis of which a guideline for successful product promotion is drawn up. And last, but not least: Since every company has different requirements for the properties of its products and thus the materials used, a material research for potentially suitable biopolymers for one product of each project participant is carried out within the project. Through networking and the cross-sectoral consideration of requirements, new impulses for the use of biopolymers can be made possible. Although the project language will be German, it will also be possible for international participants to download the project results in English, if required. The short project duration of one year offers a quick introduction to the topic of biopolymers. The project participants do not have to invest any active work in the project themselves so that a low personnel and cost effort is generated for the development of a knowledge base. The results will be presented in 3 project meetings over the project duration. Costs for participation in the project lie at around EUR 6,500, the contact person of the Kunststoff-Institut Lüdenscheid is Julia Loth. AT More information Contact Julia Loth 48 bioplastics MAGAZINE [05/22] Vol. 17

Mechanical Recycling Extrusion Physical-Chemical Recycling available at Dissolution Physical Recycling Enzymolysis Biochemical Recycling Plastic Product End of Life Plastic Waste Collection Separation Different Waste Qualities Solvolysis Chemical Recycling Monomers Depolymerisation Thermochemical Recycling Pyrolysis Thermochemical Recycling Incineration CO2 Utilisation (CCU) Gasification Thermochemical Recycling CO2 © | 2022 PVC EPDM PP PMMA PE Vinyl chloride Propylene Unsaturated polyester resins Methyl methacrylate PEF Polyurethanes MEG Building blocks Natural rubber Aniline Ethylene for UPR Cellulose-based 2,5-FDCA polymers Building blocks for polyurethanes Levulinic acid Lignin-based polymers Naphtha Ethanol PET PFA 5-HMF/5-CMF FDME Furfuryl alcohol Waste oils Casein polymers Furfural Natural rubber Saccharose PTF Starch-containing Hemicellulose Lignocellulose 1,3 Propanediol polymer compounds Casein Fructose PTT Terephthalic Non-edible milk acid MPG NOPs Starch ECH Glycerol p-Xylene SBR Plant oils Fatty acids Castor oil 11-AA Glucose Isobutanol THF Sebacic Lysine PBT acid 1,4-Butanediol Succinic acid DDDA PBAT Caprolactame Adipic acid HMDA DN5 Sorbitol 3-HP Lactic acid Itaconic Acrylic PBS(x) acid acid Isosorbide PA Lactide Superabsorbent polymers Epoxy resins ABS PHA APC PLA available at O OH HO OH HO OH O OH HO OH O OH O OH © | 2021 All figures available at Adipic acid (AA) 11-Aminoundecanoic acid (11-AA) 1,4-Butanediol (1,4-BDO) Dodecanedioic acid (DDDA) Epichlorohydrin (ECH) Ethylene Furan derivatives D-lactic acid (D-LA) L-lactic acid (L-LA) Lactide Monoethylene glycol (MEG) Monopropylene glycol (MPG) Naphtha 1,5-Pentametylenediamine (DN5) 1,3-Propanediol (1,3-PDO) Sebacic acid Succinic acid (SA) © | 2020 fossil available at Refining Polymerisation Formulation Processing Use renewable Depolymerisation Solvolysis Thermal depolymerisation Enzymolysis Purification Dissolution Recycling Conversion Pyrolysis Gasification allocated Recovery Recovery Recovery conventional © | 2021 © | 2020 nova Market and Trend Reports on Renewable Carbon The Best Available on Bio- and CO2-based Polymers & Building Blocks and Chemical Recycling Category Mapping of advanced recycling technologies for plastics waste Providers, technologies, and partnerships Mimicking Nature – The PHA Industry Landscape Latest trends and 28 producer profiles Bio-based Naphtha and Mass Balance Approach Status & Outlook, Standards & Certification Schemes Diversity of Advanced Recycling Principle of Mass Balance Approach Feedstock Process Products Plastics Composites Plastics/ Syngas Polymers Monomers Monomers Naphtha Use of renewable feedstock in very first steps of chemical production (e.g. steam cracker) Utilisation of existing integrated production for all production steps Allocation of the renewable share to selected products Authors: Lars Krause, Michael Carus, Achim Raschka and Nico Plum (all nova-Institute) June 2022 This and other reports on renewable carbon are available at Author: Jan Ravenstijn March 2022 This and other reports on renewable carbon are available at Authors: Michael Carus, Doris de Guzman and Harald Käb March 2021 This and other reports on renewable carbon are available at Bio-based Building Blocks and Polymers – Global Capacities, Production and Trends 2020 – 2025 Polymers Carbon Dioxide (CO 2) as Chemical Feedstock for Polymers Technologies, Polymers, Developers and Producers Chemical recycling – Status, Trends and Challenges Technologies, Sustainability, Policy and Key Players Building Blocks Plastic recycling and recovery routes Intermediates Feedstocks Primary recycling (mechanical) Virgin Feedstock Monomer Polymer Plastic Product Product (end-of-use) Landfill Renewable Feedstock Secondary recycling (mechanical) Tertiary recycling (chemical) Quaternary recycling (energy recovery) Secondary valuable materials CO 2 capture Energy Chemicals Fuels Others Authors: Pia Skoczinski, Michael Carus, Doris de Guzman, Harald Käb, Raj Chinthapalli, Jan Ravenstijn, Wolfgang Baltus and Achim Raschka January 2021 This and other reports on renewable carbon are available at Authors: Pauline Ruiz, Achim Raschka, Pia Skoczinski, Jan Ravenstijn and Michael Carus, nova-Institut GmbH, Germany January 2021 This and other reports on renewable carbon are available at Author: Lars Krause, Florian Dietrich, Pia Skoczinski, Michael Carus, Pauline Ruiz, Lara Dammer, Achim Raschka, nova-Institut GmbH, Germany November 2020 This and other reports on the bio- and CO 2-based economy are available at Genetic engineering Production of Cannabinoids via Extraction, Chemical Synthesis and Especially Biotechnology Current Technologies, Potential & Drawbacks and Future Development Plant extraction Plant extraction Cannabinoids Chemical synthesis Biotechnological production Production capacities (million tonnes) Commercialisation updates on bio-based building blocks Bio-based building blocks Evolution of worldwide production capacities from 2011 to 2024 4 3 2 1 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2024 Levulinic acid – A versatile platform chemical for a variety of market applications Global market dynamics, demand/supply, trends and market potential HO OH diphenolic acid H 2N O OH O O OH 5-aminolevulinic acid O O levulinic acid O O ɣ-valerolactone OH HO O O succinic acid OH O O OH O O levulinate ketal O H N O 5-methyl-2-pyrrolidone OR O levulinic ester Authors: Pia Skoczinski, Franjo Grotenhermen, Bernhard Beitzke, Michael Carus and Achim Raschka January 2021 This and other reports on renewable carbon are available at Author: Doris de Guzman, Tecnon OrbiChem, United Kingdom Updated Executive Summary and Market Review May 2020 – Originally published February 2020 This and other reports on the bio- and CO 2-based economy are available at Authors: Achim Raschka, Pia Skoczinski, Raj Chinthapalli, Ángel Puente and Michael Carus, nova-Institut GmbH, Germany October 2019 This and other reports on the bio-based economy are available at bioplastics MAGAZINE [05/22] Vol. 17 49

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