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issue 05/2021

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Highlights: Fibres, Textiles, Nonwovens Biocomposites Basics: CO2-based plastics

Conference Review

Conference Review Post-growth: A look at the possible range of more sustainable toys Intensive discussions and strong interest in many of the conference’s topics Online speaker Sharon Keilthy perfectly integrated bioplastic, dispelling the common misconception that bioplastic automatically means biodegradable. A similar issue had been brought up in an earlier presentation by Patrick Zimmermann from FkUR who said his personal baseline for public understanding is his mother, if he thinks she won’t understand then a large part of the general public probably won’t either. However, Sharon had another bone to pick – Barbie loves the Oceans and Mr Potato Head goes green. While she commended the big players for their effort but explained the problem with that approach. “Why do we need a special Barbie who’s made from recycled plastic? Why don’t we take the most popular Barbie and switch her to recycled plastics? The average customer doesn’t care, most people walk into a store and just want ‘Barbie’ so they’ll buy the most popular one. Trying to sell an eco-Barbie feels like it’s set up to fail. I’ve heard from many retailers that the eco lines are not successful and many are discontinued. How did we expect eco-lines to be successful in their own right? The reason this probably happens is costs. (…) For me, the big question is, if we have to make Barbie loves the Oceans because recycled plastic is more expensive, if we have to make Mr Potato Head goes green because bioplastics are more expensive and we can’t just converse the existing Mr Potato Head or the existing Barbie because of price, then we have a fundamental problem and we are stuck playing around with 1 % of our toys, which won’t solve the global catastrophe that is due to happen in my daughter’s lifetime, and in the lifetime of all the children in your lives.” The future of the Teddy Bear – PLA? One last noteworthy presentation came from Keiko Matsumoto, a founder at Comfoam Germany. She was one of the last to present, yet one of the most sought-after speakers of the conference. Keiko showed up with many samples, demonstrating the possibilities of PLA-blends for textiles – one of the examples was a plush bear, but she also had T-shirts among other things. Her presentation addressed common topics such as CO 2 footprint of the material, but also how their special improved PLA-staple fibre could replace polyester and other synthetic fibres for both toys and clothes. The PLA-material of Miyama, the company Keiko represented, has many value-adding attributes such as being antibacterial, deodorizing, and UV-shielding (among others). While 100 % PLA products are possible, many of these added attributes can already be achieved with blends such as 50 % PLA and 50 % polyester, “even 20% mixed PLA-staple fibre is enough to keep the antibacterial property,” so Keiko. “The materials are safe, functional, and can contribute to reducing CO 2 emissions.” Overall, the bio!TOY was a big success and we advise anybody interested in the field and unable to attend to check it out, as this hybrid conference was recorded, subsequent participation via video-on-demand is still possible. Interested parties should contact We are also happy to announce that one of the attendees has anonymously nominated the bio!TOY for the Bioplastics Award 2021 – the winner will be announced the winner during the 16 th European Bioplastics Conference (Nov 30 – Dec 1, in Berlin, Germany). We hope to see many of you at one of our next events. Full interview with Skye Neville 10 bioplastics MAGAZINE [05/21] Vol. 16

fossil available at Refining Polymerisation Formulation Processing Use renewable Depolymerisation Solvolysis Thermal depolymerisation Enzymolysis Purification Dissolution Recycling Conversion Pyrolysis Gasification allocated Recovery Recovery Recovery conventional © | 2021 © | 2020 PVC EPDM PMMA PP PE Vinyl chloride Propylene Unsaturated polyester resins Methyl methacrylate PEF Polyurethanes MEG Building blocks Natural rubber Aniline Ethylene for UPR Cellulose-based 2,5-FDCA polymers Building blocks for polyurethanes Levulinic acid Lignin-based polymers Naphtha Ethanol PET PFA 5-HMF/5-CMF FDME Furfuryl alcohol Waste oils Casein polymers Furfural Natural rubber Saccharose PTF Starch-containing Hemicellulose Lignocellulose 1,3 Propanediol polymer compounds Casein Fructose PTT Terephthalic Non-edible milk acid MPG NOPs Starch ECH Glycerol p-Xylene SBR Plant oils Fatty acids Castor oil 11-AA Glucose Isobutanol THF Sebacic Lysine PBT acid 1,4-Butanediol Succinic acid DDDA PBAT Caprolactame Adipic acid HMDA DN5 Sorbitol 3-HP Lactic acid Itaconic Acrylic PBS(x) acid acid Isosorbide PA Lactide Superabsorbent polymers Epoxy resins ABS PHA APC PLA available at ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ O OH HO OH HO OH O OH ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ HO OH O OH O OH © | 2021 All figures available at Adipic acid (AA) 11-Aminoundecanoic acid (11-AA) 1,4-Butanediol (1,4-BDO) Dodecanedioic acid (DDDA) Epichlorohydrin (ECH) Ethylene Furan derivatives D-lactic acid (D-LA) L-lactic acid (L-LA) Lactide Monoethylene glycol (MEG) Monopropylene glycol (MPG) Naphtha 1,5-Pentametylenediamine (DN5) 1,3-Propanediol (1,3-PDO) Sebacic acid Succinic acid (SA) © | 2020 nova Market and Trend Reports on Renewable Carbon The Best Available on Bio- and CO2-based Polymers & Building Blocks and Chemical Recycling Bio-based Naphtha and Mass Balance Approach Status & Outlook, Standards & Certification Schemes Bio-based Building Blocks and Polymers – Global Capacities, Production and Trends 2020 – 2025 Polymers Carbon Dioxide (CO 2) as Chemical Feedstock for Polymers Technologies, Polymers, Developers and Producers Conference Review Principle of Mass Balance Approach Building Blocks Feedstock Process Products Intermediates Use of renewable feedstock in very first steps of chemical production (e.g. steam cracker) Utilisation of existing integrated production for all production steps Allocation of the renewable share to selected products Feedstocks Authors: Michael Carus, Doris de Guzman and Harald Käb March 2021 This and other reports on renewable carbon are available at Authors: Pia Skoczinski, Michael Carus, Doris de Guzman, Harald Käb, Raj Chinthapalli, Jan Ravenstijn, Wolfgang Baltus and Achim Raschka January 2021 This and other reports on renewable carbon are available at Authors: Pauline Ruiz, Achim Raschka, Pia Skoczinski, Jan Ravenstijn and Michael Carus, nova-Institut GmbH, Germany January 2021 This and other reports on renewable carbon are available at Chemical recycling – Status, Trends and Challenges Technologies, Sustainability, Policy and Key Players Production of Cannabinoids via Extraction, Chemical Synthesis and Especially Biotechnology Current Technologies, Potential & Drawbacks and Future Development Commercialisation updates on bio-based building blocks Plastic recycling and recovery routes Bio-based building blocks Evolution of worldwide production capacities from 2011 to 2024 Primary recycling (mechanical) Virgin Feedstock Renewable Feedstock Monomer Polymer Plastic Product Secondary recycling (mechanical) Tertiary recycling (chemical) Secondary valuable materials CO 2 capture Chemicals Fuels Others Plant extraction Chemical synthesis Cannabinoids Plant extraction Genetic engineering Biotechnological production Production capacities (million tonnes) 4 3 2 1 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2024 Product (end-of-use) Quaternary recycling (energy recovery) Energy Landfill Author: Lars Krause, Florian Dietrich, Pia Skoczinski, Michael Carus, Pauline Ruiz, Lara Dammer, Achim Raschka, nova-Institut GmbH, Germany November 2020 This and other reports on the bio- and CO 2-based economy are available at Authors: Pia Skoczinski, Franjo Grotenhermen, Bernhard Beitzke, Michael Carus and Achim Raschka January 2021 This and other reports on renewable carbon are available at Author: Doris de Guzman, Tecnon OrbiChem, United Kingdom Updated Executive Summary and Market Review May 2020 – Originally published February 2020 This and other reports on the bio- and CO 2-based economy are available at Levulinic acid – A versatile platform chemical for a variety of market applications Global market dynamics, demand/supply, trends and market potential HO O O OH diphenolic acid O O H 2N OH O levulinate ketal O OH O OH 5-aminolevulinic acid O O O O levulinic acid OR levulinic ester O O ɣ-valerolactone OH HO H N O O O succinic acid 5-methyl-2-pyrrolidone OH Succinic acid – From a promising building block to a slow seller What will a realistic future market look like? Pharmaceutical/Cosmetic Acidic ingredient for denture cleaner/toothpaste Antidote Calcium-succinate is anticarcinogenic Efferescent tablets Intermediate for perfumes Pharmaceutical intermediates (sedatives, antiphlegm/-phogistics, antibacterial, disinfectant) Preservative for toiletries Removes fish odour Used in the preparation of vitamin A Food Bread-softening agent Flavour-enhancer Flavouring agent and acidic seasoning in beverages/food Microencapsulation of flavouring oils Preservative (chicken, dog food) Protein gelatinisation and in dry gelatine desserts/cake flavourings Used in synthesis of modified starch Succinic Acid Industrial De-icer Engineering plastics and epoxy curing agents/hardeners Herbicides, fungicides, regulators of plantgrowth Intermediate for lacquers + photographic chemicals Plasticizer (replaces phtalates, adipic acid) Polymers Solvents, lubricants Surface cleaning agent (metal-/electronic-/semiconductor-industry) Other Anodizing Aluminium Chemical metal plating, electroplating baths Coatings, inks, pigments (powder/radiation-curable coating, resins for water-based paint, dye intermediate, photocurable ink, toners) Fabric finish, dyeing aid for fibres Part of antismut-treatment for barley seeds Preservative for cut flowers Soil-chelating agent Standards and labels for bio-based products Authors: Achim Raschka, Pia Skoczinski, Raj Chinthapalli, Ángel Puente and Michael Carus, nova-Institut GmbH, Germany October 2019 This and other reports on the bio-based economy are available at Authors: Raj Chinthapalli, Ángel Puente, Pia Skoczinski, Achim Raschka, Michael Carus, nova-Institut GmbH, Germany October 2019 This and other reports on the bio-based economy are available at Authors: Lara Dammer, Michael Carus and Dr. Asta Partanen nova-Institut GmbH, Germany May 2017 This and other reports on the bio-based economy are available at bioplastics MAGAZINE [05/21] Vol. 16 11

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