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Issue 05/2018

  • Text
  • Bioplastics
  • Plastics
  • Biobased
  • Products
  • Materials
  • Biodegradable
  • Packaging
  • Compostable
  • Sustainable
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bioplasticsMAGAZINE_1805

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© © -Institut.eu | 2018 -Institut.eu | 2017 Full study available at www.bio-based.eu/reports Full study available at www.bio-based.eu/reports © -Institut.eu | 2017 Full study available at www.bio-based.eu/markets Basics Bio- and CO 2 -based Polymers & Building Blocks The best market reports available Data for 2017 Bio-based Building Blocks and Polymers – Global Capacities and Trends 2017-2022 Bio-based polymers: Evolution of worldwide production capacities from 2011 to 2022 Million Tonnes 6 5 4 3 Dedicated Drop-in Smart Drop-in without bio-based PUR 2 1 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 18-05-22 Authors: Raj Chinthapalli, Michael Carus, Wolfgang Baltus, Doris de Guzman, Harald Käb, Achim Raschka, Jan Ravenstijn, 2018 This and other reports on the bio-based economy are available at www.bio-based.eu/reports Commercialisation updates on bio-based building blocks Standards and labels for bio-based products Bio-based polymers, a revolutionary change Comprehensive trend report on PHA, PLA, PUR/TPU, PA and polymers based on FDCA and SA: Latest developments, producers, drivers and lessons learnt million t/a Selected bio-based building blocks: Evolution of worldwide production capacities from 2011 to 2021 3,5 actual data forecast 3 2,5 Bio-based polymers, a revolutionary change 2 1,5 Jan Ravenstijn 2017 1 0,5 Picture: Gehr Kunststoffwerk 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 L-LA Succinic acid Epichlorohydrin 1,4-BDO MEG 2,5-FDCA Ethylene D-LA Sebacic 1,3-PDO acid 11-Aminoundecanoic acid MPG DDDA Lactide Adipic acid E-mail: j.ravenstijn@kpnmail.nl Mobile: +31.6.2247.8593 Author: Doris de Guzman, Tecnon OrbiChem, United Kingdom July 2017 This and other reports on the bio-based economy are available at www.bio-based.eu/reports Authors: Lara Dammer, Michael Carus and Dr. Asta Partanen nova-Institut GmbH, Germany May 2017 This and other reports on the bio-based economy are available at www.bio-based.eu/reports Author: Jan Ravenstijn, Jan Ravenstijn Consulting, the Netherlands April 2017 This and other reports on the bio-based economy are available at www.bio-based.eu/reports Policies impacting bio-based plastics market development and plastic bags legislation in Europe Asian markets for bio-based chemical building blocks and polymers Market study on the consumption of biodegradable and compostable plastic products in Europe 2015 and 2020 Share of Asian production capacity on global production by polymer in 2016 100% A comprehensive market research report including consumption figures by polymer and application types as well as by geography, plus analyses of key players, relevant policies and legislation and a special feature on biodegradation and composting standards and labels 80% 60% Bestsellers 40% 20% 0% PBS(X) APC – cyclic PA PET PTT PBAT Starch Blends PHA PLA PE Disposable tableware Biowaste bags Carrier bags Rigid packaging Flexible packaging Authors: Dirk Carrez, Clever Consult, Belgium Jim Philp, OECD, France Dr. Harald Kaeb, narocon Innovation Consulting, Germany Lara Dammer & Michael Carus, nova-Institute, Germany March 2017 This and other reports on the bio-based economy are available at www.bio-based.eu/reports Author: Wolfgang Baltus, Wobalt Expedition Consultancy, Thailand This and other reports on the bio-based economy are available at www.bio-based.eu/reports Authors: Harald Kaeb (narocon, lead), Florence Aeschelmann, Lara Dammer, Michael Carus (nova-Institute) April 2016 The full market study (more than 300 slides, 3,500€) is available at bio-based.eu/top-downloads. www.bio-based.eu/reports 42 bioplastics MAGAZINE [05/18] Vol. 13

Basics Industrial composters: Where does your shoe pinch By: Michael Thielen Indoor composting with aeration screw and controlled temperature and moisture (Germany) For compostable plastic products international standards, such as EN 13432 or ASTM D 6400, have been in place for many years already. However, the acceptance of – even certified – compostable plastic products in industrial composting differs significantly from country to country. Depending on the application, biodegradable plastics certainly offer benefits. Mulch film for instance, that can be ploughed under after the harvest and biodegrade in the soil. Tomato clips or twines help the tomatoes grow and – if compostable – don’t need to be separated from the green waste after harvesting. Other examples are browsing protection for young trees and there are many many more. When it comes to compostable plastic bags, packaging or serviceware products the situation becomes complex. And the situation is certainly different in different countries. In Italy and France for instance thin shopping bags must be compostable and a French law will require all disposable tableware to be made from 50% biologically-sourced materials that can be composted at home by January of 2020. In Germany on the contrary, only biowaste collection bags are allowed in the green waste collection bins. Thus this article can only try to give some flashlight examples from different locations. Germany In Germany today only certified compostable biowaste collection bags are allowed by law. “This however does not mean that biowaste bags may be put in the green waste bins everywhere”, as Bertram Kehres, Managing Director of the Bundesgütegemeinschaft Kompost e.V. (BGK: German Federal Compost Quality Association) told bioplastics MAGAZINE. National law (Bioabfallverordnung - BioAbfV; Biowaste ordinance) allows certified compostable bags (not however any kind of packaging – even if certified) in the biowaste collection bin, but municipalities can deny their households the use of this disposal option. “The final decision lies in the responsibility of the municipal authorities.” But why are industrial composters especially in Germany so reluctant in accepting compostable plastic products? “Well, first of all, because they do not bring any real benefit,” as Kehres puts it. “They do not bring along any valuable properties or ingredients that serve the rotting process or the finished compost,” as can be read in a position paper of BKG [1]. Thus a material recycling of bioplastics by composting as required by the Kreislaufwirtschaftsgesetz (KrWG: Recycling and Waste Management Act), is not fulfilled, the paper says. Also, the requirements of standards, such as EN 13432, do not satisfy BGK. The standards require 90 % of biological degradation, so the composters fear small plastic particles as residues at the end of the composting process, reducing the quality of their compost. This, however, is something that might rather be caused by misthrows of conventional plastics. Composting plants in the USA (see below), where almost 100 % compostable plastics can be guaranteed, don’t see any such problems. And Sam Deconinck of OWS (Organic Waste Systems,Ghent, Belgium) confirmed to bioplastics MAGAZINE that 90 % conversion of the carbon in the plastic into CO 2 doesn’t mean that the residual 10 % are small plastic parts, but rather biomass, as the microorganisms also grow on the bioplastics feed. Just recently researchers at ETH Züruch (Switzerland) confirmed that microbes fully metabolize compostable plastics. In addition, BGK states that modern composting cycles are in many cases today shorter than the 12 weeks mentioned in EN 13432. And there are more laws, that the compost associations present: The Verband der Humus und Erdenwirtschaft e.V. (VHE: Association of Humus and Soil Management) cites the Düngemittelverordnung (DüMV: fertilizer ordinance) bioplastics MAGAZINE [05/18] Vol. 13 43

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