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Issue 05/2015

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From Science & Research

From Science & Research In addition, fossil residues of living matter such as crude oil, natural gas and coals were also taken into account. As an example, a summary of the stable isotope ratio ranges of δ 2 H and δ 13 C values for these material and compound classes are shown in figure 3 and 4, respectively. In general it was found that the range of variation of the isotopic composition of living matter and its major constituents shows a considerable overlap with the range of variation observed in materials of fossil origin such as coal and oil (e. g. figure 3 and 4). Only C4-plants, especially their carbohydrates and proteins, are less depleted with regard to their δ 13 C composition than raw materials of fossil origin (figure 4). The photosynthetic pathway of C4-plants (e. g. maize, sugar cane) differs from that of the common C3-plants (e. g. sugar beet, potato, grain). Conclusions Based on an extensive literature overview of the δ 2 H, δ 13 C, δ 15 N and δ 18 O values of bio-based as well as fossil-based and fossil energy-based materials and compounds, it is shown that stable isotope ratios of these elements are in general not suitable for determining the bio-based content of products 1 . This is due to the large range of variation observed in the isotopic composition of these materials and compounds, leading to large uncertainties in the estimate of the bio-based content. Moreover, information about the isotopic composition of many relevant materials and compounds is currently lacking. The stable isotope approach could therefore only be feasible in specific cases provided that manufacturers would manage to tightly control the isotopic composition of their raw materials. In addition more data about the isotopic composition of materials and compounds should come available. 1 This research was carried out within the KBBPPS project (“Knowledge Based Bio-based Products’ Pre- Standardization”, see also www.kbbpps.eu) and has received funding from the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme for research, technological development and demonstration under grant agreement No. 312060. www.kbbpps.eu www.wageningenUR.nl/en/fbr Microplastic in the environMent Sources, Impacts & Solutions The microplastic conference will: • Identify sources of microplastics and quantify the amount ending up in nature • Reveal impacts on marine ecosystems and human beings • Propose solutions for current problems, such as prevention, recycling and substitution with biodegradable plastics & other materials 23 - 24 November 2015 Maternushaus, Cologne, Germany The conference will provide plenty of scope for discussion between producers, consumers, scientists, environmental organisations, governmental agencies and other interested stakeholders. Your Contact: Dominik Vogt Conference Management +49 (0)2233 4814 - 49 dominik.vogt@nova-institut.de nova-Institut GmbH Chemiepark Knapsack Industriestr. 300 50354 Huerth, Germany +++ More than 200 participants expected +++ +++ Free exhibition booths for participants +++ 20 bioplastics MAGAZINE [05/15] Vol. 10 www.microplastic-conference.eu

Polylactic Acid Uhde Inventa-Fischer has expanded its product portfolio to include the innovative stateof-the-art PLAneo ® process. The feedstock for our PLA process is lactic acid, which can be produced from local agricultural products containing starch or sugar. The application range of PLA is similar to that of polymers based on fossil resources as its physical properties can be tailored to meet packaging, textile and other requirements. Think. Invest. Earn. Uhde Inventa-Fischer GmbH Holzhauser Strasse 157–159 13509 Berlin Germany Tel. +49 30 43 567 5 Fax +49 30 43 567 699 Uhde Inventa-Fischer AG Via Innovativa 31 7013 Domat/Ems Switzerland Tel. +41 81 632 63 11 Fax +41 81 632 74 03 marketing@uhde-inventa-fi scher.com www.uhde-inventa-fi scher.com Uhde Inventa-Fischer

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