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issue 04/2021

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Highlights: Toys Thermoforming Basics: Bio-Polypropylene

Carbon Capture VIVALDI A

Carbon Capture VIVALDI A change of tune for the chemical industry: The European Union has awarded EUR 7 million to the VIVALDI project to transform the biobased industry into a new, more environmentally friendly and competitive sector. To reach climate targets, industries need to accelerate the transition towards a low-carbon, resource efficiency, and circular economy. The chemical sector is one of the most challenging, but also a very promising one, in that context. At the forefront of waste reutilization, biobased industries (BIs) have the potential to lead the way and create a new and more sustainable sector based on the principle of carbon capture and utilization (CCU) also called CO 2 recycling. Based on this circular concept, BI’s will reduce their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, their dependency on fossil carbon import and the exploitation of key resources such as energy, raw materials, land, and water. Starting from June 2021, the EU Horizon 2020 project VIVALDI (innoVative bIo-based chains for CO 2 VALorisation as aDded-value organIc acids) will develop a set of breakthrough biotechnologies to transform real offgases from key BI sectors (Food & Drinks, Pulp & Paper, Bioethanol, and Biochemicals) into novel feedstock for the chemical industry. The core of VIVALDI solution is to capture, enrich, and transform in a two-steps process (electrochemical and biological) the CO 2 captured into four platform organic acids. These resulting compounds have various applications: they can be used in the same site, enhancing the sustainability and circularity of BIs processes and products, or open new business opportunities as building blocks for novel biomaterial (e.g., bioplastics and animal feed). By integrating this concept, industries will “kill two birds with one stone”: not only BI’s carbon emissions will be reduced, but the production of organic compounds that today is very energy-intensive will become cheaper and more sustainable. Replicability will be a key aspect of VIVALDI solutions, allowing other biorefineries and other industrial sectors to become more circular and reduce their environmental impact. The success of the project will be ensured by a multidisciplinary and international consortium led by the GENOCOV research group of Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (Spain). The 16 partners range from BIs (SunPine, Damm, and Bioagra) and technology developers (VITO, UFZ, LEITAT, Processium, Avantium, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences (Vienna), Luleå University of Technology) to end-user (Nutrition Sciences). Novamont will research how to use CO 2 along its entire value-chain: from the capture of their CO 2 emissions to the conversion of it into new biochemicals. The team is complemented by three knowledge hubs: the sustainability and circularity expert group (BETA from Universitat de Vic, Barcelona, Spain), the technology and innovation consultancy (ISLE Utilities, London, UK), and the European Association representing the Carbon Capture and Utilisation community in Europe (CO 2 Value Europe, Brussels, Belgium). The consortium is ready to transform biorefineries, envisioning a new CO 2 -based industrial sector that contributes to largely decrease the carbon footprint of the industry and boost the EU’s economy. The VIVALDI project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 101000441. AT Drivers for regulation changes CO 2 Negative GHG emissions Purification & conversion Formic Acid Ground-breaking technologies Policy makers 3-Hydroxypropionic Acid (3-HP) Nutrient Recovery Methanol Ammonium, salts Bioproduction of organicacids Industrial validation Lactic Acid (LA) Succinic Acid (SA) Society Raise awareness Less pollutedwastewater New business models More sustainable products New biopolymers Easy replicability Itaconic Acid (IA) 40 bioplastics MAGAZINE [04/21] Vol. 16

fossil available at available at renewable Use of renewable feedstock in very first steps of chemical production (e.g. steam cracker) OH O OH HO OH HO Utilisation of existing integrated production for all production steps OH O OH HO OH O allocated OH O Allocation of the renewable share to selected products conventional © | 2021 © | 2021 PVC EPDM PP PMMA PE Vinyl chloride Propylene Unsaturated polyester resins Methyl methacrylate PEF Polyurethanes MEG Building blocks Natural rubber Aniline Ethylene for UPR Cellulose-based 2,5-FDCA polymers Building blocks for polyurethanes Levulinic acid Lignin-based polymers Naphtha Ethanol PET PFA 5-HMF/5-CMF FDME Furfuryl alcohol Waste oils Casein polymers Furfural Natural rubber Saccharose PTF Starch-containing Hemicellulose Lignocellulose 1,3 Propanediol polymer compounds Casein Fructose PTT Terephthalic Non-edible milk acid MPG NOPs Starch ECH Glycerol p-Xylene SBR Plant oils Fatty acids Castor oil 11-AA Glucose Isobutanol THF Sebacic Lysine PBT acid 1,4-Butanediol Succinic acid DDDA PBAT Caprolactame Adipic acid HMDA DN5 Sorbitol 3-HP Lactic acid Itaconic Acrylic PBS(x) acid acid Isosorbide PA Lactide Superabsorbent polymers Epoxy resins ABS PHA APC PLA 4 3 2 1 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2024 All figures available at Adipic acid (AA) 11-Aminoundecanoic acid (11-AA) 1,4-Butanediol (1,4-BDO) Dodecanedioic acid (DDDA) Epichlorohydrin (ECH) Ethylene Furan derivatives D-lactic acid (D-LA) L-lactic acid (L-LA) Lactide Monoethylene glycol (MEG) Monopropylene glycol (MPG) Naphtha 1,5-Pentametylenediamine (DN5) 1,3-Propanediol (1,3-PDO) Sebacic acid Succinic acid (SA) © | 2020 OH OH O HO diphenolic acid O H 2N OH O 5-aminolevulinic acid O O OH O O levulinate ketal O OR O levulinic ester O O ɣ-valerolactone O HO OH O succinic acid O 5-methyl-2-pyrrolidone ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Refining Polymerisation Formulation Processing Use Depolymerisation Solvolysis Thermal depolymerisation Enzymolysis Purification Dissolution Recycling Conversion Pyrolysis Gasification ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Recovery Recovery Recovery © | 2020 SUMMER SPECIAL 20% DISCOUNT BY 31 AUGUST 2021 CODE: novaSumSpec20 NEW Institute for Ecology and Innovation Bio-based Naphtha and Mass Balance Approach Market and Trend Reports DATA FOR 2020 Bio-based Building Blocks and Polymers – Global Capacities, Production and Trends 2020–2025 REVISED AND EXTENDED 2021 Carbon Dioxide (CO 2) as Chemical Feedstock for Polymers NEW Chemical recycling – Status, Trends and Challenges Automotive Status & Outlook, Standards & Certification Schemes Polymers Technologies, Polymers, Developers and Producers Technologies, Sustainability, Policy and Key Players Plastic recycling and recovery routes Principle of Mass Balance Approach Feedstock Process Products Primary recycling (mechanical) Virgin Feedstock Monomer Polymer Plastic Product Product (end-of-use) Renewable Feedstock Secondary recycling (mechanical) Tertiary recycling (chemical) Quaternary recycling (energy recovery) Secondary valuable materials CO 2 capture Energy Chemicals Fuels Others Landfill Authors: Michael Carus, Doris de Guzman and Harald Käb March 2021 This and other reports on renewable carbon are available at Authors: Pia Skoczinski, Michael Carus, Doris de Guzman, Harald Käb, Raj Chinthapalli, Jan Ravenstijn, Wolfgang Baltus and Achim Raschka January 2021 This and other reports on renewable carbon are available at Authors: Pauline Ruiz, Achim Raschka, Pia Skoczinski, Jan Ravenstijn and Michael Carus, nova-Institut GmbH, Germany January 2021 This and other reports on renewable carbon are available at Author: Lars Krause, Florian Dietrich, Pia Skoczinski, Michael Carus, Pauline Ruiz, Lara Dammer, Achim Raschka, nova-Institut GmbH, Germany November 2020 This and other reports on the bio- and CO 2-based economy are available at THE BEST MARKET REPORTS AVAILABLE Bio- and CO 2 -based Polymers & Building Blocks Production of Cannabinoids via Extraction, Chemical Synthesis and Especially Biotechnology Commercialisation updates on bio-based building blocks Levulinic acid – A versatile platform chemical for a variety of market applications Succinic acid – From a promising building block to a slow seller Current Technologies, Potential & Drawbacks and Future Development Global market dynamics, demand/supply, trends and market potential What will a realistic future market look like? Genetic engineering Plant extraction Plant extraction Cannabinoids Chemical synthesis Biotechnological production Production capacities (million tonnes) Bio-based building blocks Evolution of worldwide production capacities from 2011 to 2024 O OH O levulinic acid H N Pharmaceutical/Cosmetic Industrial Acidic ingredient for denture cleaner/toothpaste De-icer Antidote Engineering plastics and epoxy curing Calcium-succinate is anticarcinogenic agents/hardeners Efferescent tablets Herbicides, fungicides, regulators of plantgrowth Intermediate for perfumes Intermediate for lacquers + photographic chemicals Pharmaceutical intermediates (sedatives, Plasticizer (replaces phtalates, adipic acid) antiphlegm/-phogistics, antibacterial, disinfectant) Polymers Preservative for toiletries Solvents, lubricants Removes fish odour Surface cleaning agent Used in the preparation of vitamin A (metal-/electronic-/semiconductor-industry) Succinic Food Acid Other Bread-softening agent Flavour-enhancer Flavouring agent and acidic seasoning in beverages/food Microencapsulation of flavouring oils Preservative (chicken, dog food) Protein gelatinisation and in dry gelatine desserts/cake flavourings Used in synthesis of modified starch Anodizing Aluminium Chemical metal plating, electroplating baths Coatings, inks, pigments (powder/radiation-curable coating, resins for water-based paint, dye intermediate, photocurable ink, toners) Fabric finish, dyeing aid for fibres Part of antismut-treatment for barley seeds Preservative for cut flowers Soil-chelating agent Authors: Pia Skoczinski, Franjo Grotenhermen, Bernhard Beitzke, Michael Carus and Achim Raschka Author: Doris de Guzman, Tecnon OrbiChem, United Kingdom Authors: Achim Raschka, Pia Skoczinski, Raj Chinthapalli, Ángel Puente and Michael Carus, nova-Institut GmbH, Germany Authors: Raj Chinthapalli, Ángel Puente, Pia Skoczinski, Achim Raschka, Michael Carus, nova-Institut GmbH, Germany January 2021 This and other reports on renewable carbon are available at Updated Executive Summary and Market Review May 2020 – Originally published February 2020 This and other reports on the bio- and CO 2-based economy are available at October 2019 This and other reports on the bio-based economy are available at October 2019 This and other reports on the bio-based economy are available at Standards and labels for bio-based products Bio-based polymers, a revolutionary change Comprehensive trend report on PHA, PLA, PUR/TPU, PA and polymers based on FDCA and SA: Latest developments, producers, drivers and lessons learnt Fff Bio-based polymers, a revolutionary change Market study on the consumption of biodegradable and compostable plastic products in Europe 2015 and 2020 A comprehensive market research report including consumption figures by polymer and application types as well as by geography, plus analyses of key players, relevant policies and legislation and a special feature on biodegradation and composting standards and labels Bestsellers Brand Views and Adoption of Bio-based Polymers Jan Ravenstijn March 2017 E-mail: Mobile: +31.6.2247.8593 Picture: Gehr Kunststoffwerk Disposable tableware Biowaste bags Carrier bags Rigid packaging Flexible packaging Authors: Lara Dammer, Michael Carus and Dr. Asta Partanen nova-Institut GmbH, Germany May 2017 This and other reports on the bio-based economy are available at Author: Jan Ravenstijn, Jan Ravenstijn Consulting, the Netherlands April 2017 This and other reports on the bio-based economy are available at Authors: Harald Kaeb (narocon, lead), Florence Aeschelmann, Lara Dammer, Michael Carus (nova-Institute) April 2016 This and other reports on the bio-based economy are available at Author: Dr. Harald Kaeb, narocon Innovation Consulting, Germany January 2016 This and other reports on the bio-based economy are available at bioplastics MAGAZINE [04/21] Vol. 16 41

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