vor 3 Jahren

Issue 04/2016

  • Text
  • Bioplastics
  • Materials
  • Products
  • Biobased
  • Plastics
  • Packaging
  • Biodegradable
  • Applications
  • Additives
  • Compostable

10 years ago Published

10 years ago Published in bioplastics MAGAZINE 10 YEARS AGO new series “Basically, the information in the article is still true today. However, the bioplastics market has diversified and developed enormously over the past ten years with new innovative materials and a broader spectrum of end-of-life-options. Today, we define bioplastics as plastics that are bio-based, biodegradable, or both.”, says Constance Ißbrücker, Head of Environmental Affairs at European Bioplastics, the successor organization of the former IBAW. Basics Fig 1: Ideal closed loop life cycle of biodegradable products (courtesy of IBAW) Definition of “Bioplastics” To say it right from the beginning: A clear definition of “bioplastics” that would be agreed upon by all parties involved worldwide does not exist. Even though bioplastics magazine will try to make a first step by formulating a draft. Our readers’ comments on this draft are always welcome and may lead to an updated definition in one of the coming issues. The idea of bioplastics The basic idea behind bioplastics is taken from nature‘s cycle. Worldwide, more than 100 billion tonnes of organic material is generated every year by photosynthesis. Most of it is subsequently converted back into the starting products, carbon dioxide and water, by micro-organisms. This cycle is the role model for bioplastics, that are often made from renewable raw materials obtained from agricultural production. When biodegradable plastics (or certain other products in general) have served their purpose, they can be composted - a recycling method for which bioplastics are highly suited [1]. This leads to a first try of a definition ... Bioplastics are man-made plastics (polymers) which can be processed by established plastics processing technologies such as injection moulding, blown or cast film extrusion, blow moulding, extrusion etc. and which are A) based on (annually) renewable raw materials (RRM) or B) biodegradable. Annually renewable raw materials are plants like maize/ corn, rapeseed or soy from which, e.g. starch or edible oils can be harvested, which in turn can then be converted into thermoplastic polymers. The biodegradability is defined by different standards, in Europe, for example by the EN 13432 standard. Products that are candidates to be classified as biodegradable or compostable have to be certified by independent entities and then receive an appropriate logo (see page X for an example) Both aspects of being based on renewable sources and being bio-degradable have been fulfilled for most of the so-called bioplastics that are already commercially available. However, there are also materials available that are, for example, biodegradable, but based on crude oil, or even blends or other combinations of polymers that are partly made of RRM and partly of crude oil. Other materials are based on (or even only partly based on) renewable sources, but are not biodegradable. These are for example polyamides (11 or 6.9) based on castor-oil or tallow, polyesters containing bio-based 1,3-propane-diol, polypropylene with wood fibre fillers, polyethylene-starch blends or polyurethanes with polyols based on sugar or fatty acids. Here the definition becomes difficult ... On one hand, in view of limited crude oil resources and rising prices, the aspect of sustainability, and therefore also the use of RRM, is becoming increasingly more important. So even materials that are only partly based on RRM can be a useful approach, especially when properties are achieved, that cannot be achieved with materials based 100% on RRM. But what should be the minimum percentage of RRM for such a material to be called a bioplastic? On the other hand, if a polymer is based on renewable sources, should it necessarily have to also be biodegradable? If such a material is incinerated, for example, with exploitation of the energy stored within it, there is a neutral effect on the climate. The amount of carbon dioxide emitted during incineration is less or equal to the CO 2 that was absorbed by the plant during its growth. A completely different group of materials are so-called oxo-degradable polymers, sometimes referred to as oxo- This series is to be continued. Topics in the coming issues are listed below. Bioplastics magazine encourages its readers to contribute their knowledge for the coming “Basics” features. Bio-degradation What is degradation? What about degradation in water, in soil, elsewhere? What is composting? What happens in an industrial composting plant, what happens in home composting? Do we have enough agricultural space to grow “bioplastics” How much space is needed to produce one kg or one tonne of bioplastics? What about the growing need for agricultural space for other bio-based products like bio-fuels and chemicals based on renewable sources? Further topics Definition of “sustainability” How is maize/corn converted into PLA? How do bacteria make PHA? How is PHA made from switchgrass? How is starch converted into plastics? etc. toxicity. The so-called “oxo-biodegradable” polyethylene (PE) products may fragment into very small particles after exposure to UV light or dry heat. PE is however still to a large extent resistant to biodegradation after fragmentation, and there is therefore potential of high persistency in the environment and bioaccumulation of liberated regulated metals and PE fragments in organisms due to the slow process. None of the oxo-degradable polymer products has ever been proved to fulfil the EN 13432 standard. They seem to be outside the range of the bioplastics class, although some of their protagonists may like to see them included [2]. A lot of open questions. Any comments or opinions are welcome and should be addressed to Basics read the original from 2006: 26 bioplastics [06/01] Vol. 1 biodegradables. These materials, based on polyethylene (from fossile resources), but containing additives to promote degradation of the material, are a contentious issue, as they pose several concerns regarding safety and eco- References: [1] [2] Position paper on “Degradable” PE Shopping Bags, IBAW, Berlin, published June 6, 2005 bioplastics [06/01] Vol. 1 27 Leading Event on Carbon Capture and Utilization in 2016 6 – 7 December 2016, Cologne (Germany) 1 st Day (6 December 2016): Political Framework & Visions • Policy & Visions • Artificial Photosynthesis & H 2 Generation 2 nd Day (7 December 2016): Chemicals & Energy from CO 2 • Chemicals & Polymers • CO 2 -based Fuels Conference Team Achim Raschka Programme +49 (0)2233 4814-51 For the 5 th year in a row, the conference “Carbon Dioxide as Feedstock for Fuels, Chemistry and Polymers” will take place. More than 200 participants from the leading industrial and academic players in CO 2 utilization are expected to attend the conference and share their recent success stories, as well as new ideas and products in realization. Attending this conference will be invaluable for businessmen and academics who wish to get a full picture of how this new and exciting scenario is unfolding, as well as providing an opportunity to meet the right business or academic partners for future alliances. 20% Early Bird Discount until 15 August 2016. Code: earlybird16 Preliminary programme now online! More information at Dominik Vogt Conference Manager +49 (0)2233 4814-49 Venue Maternushaus Kardinal-Frings-Str. 1 50668 Cologne Organiser nova-Institut GmbH Chemiepark Knapsack Industriestraße 300 50354 Hürth, Germany 44 bioplastics MAGAZINE [04/16] Vol. 11

compounding WORLD Asia 2016 Visit us at Waterfront Hotel, Singapore 22 - 23 September 2016 Renewable . Ambient Compostable Plastic . FCN Approved First 30 day days 60 days 120 180 days days Excellent Heat sealability Heat resistance up to 100 C Runs well with LDPE machine *This test was conducted under natural condition in Bangkok, Thailand. Dreaming of naturally compostable bioplastic ? Here is the answer. BioPBS is revolutionary in bioplastic technology by excelling 30°C compostable and being essentially bio-based in accordance with OK COMPOST (EN13432), OK COMPOST HOME marks, BPI (ASTM D6400) for composting and DIN CERTCO for biobased products. It is compostable without requiring a composting facility and no adverse effects on the environment. BioPBS is available in various grades, which can be applied in a wide range of end use applications ranking from paper packaging, flexible packaging, agricultural film, and injection molding. It provides non-process changing solution to achieve better results in your manufacturing needs, retains the same material quality, and can be processed in existing machine as good as conventional material. In comparison with other bioplastics, BioPBS is excellent heat properties both heat sealability and heat resistance up to 100 °C. In addition to those benefits, it is only few compostable polymers complying with food contact of U.S.FCN NO.1574, EU 10/2011 and JHOSPA. 8C084/8C085 8C083 BioPBS is available in various grades that conform to the following international standards for composting and biobased. For more information PTTMCC Biochem : +66 (2) 2 140 3555 / MCPP Germany GmbH : +49 (0) 152 018 920 51 / MCPP France SAS : +33 (0) 6 07 22 25 32 / PTT MCC Biochem Co., Ltd. A Joint Venture Company of PTT and Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation 555/2 Energy Complex Tower, Building B, 14th Floor, Vibhavadi Rangsit Road, Chatuchak, Bangkok 10900, Thailand T: +66 (0) 2 140 3555 I F: +66(0) 2 140 3556 I

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