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Issue 03/2022

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Highlights: Injection Moulding Beauty & Healthcare Basics: Biocompatibility of PHA Starch

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News daily updated News at Carbios enzymatic recycling technology Carbios (Saint-Beauzire, France) recently announced the validation of the 3 rd and final technical step of the CE- PET research project, co-funded by ADEME (France’s Environment and Energy Management Agency), for which Carbios is the lead partner alongside its academic partner Toulouse White Biotechnology (Toulouse, France). This achievement confirms, once again, the full potential and breadth of Carbios' enzymatic recycling process, C-ZYME. This breakthrough innovation makes it possible to produce a wide variety of products of equivalent quality to those of petro-sourced origin from any PET waste, including textiles. The first white PET fibre recycled enzymatically from coloured textile waste Worldwide, around 90 million tonnes of PET are produced each year, more than 2/3 of which are used to manufacture fibres. However, only 13 % of textile waste is currently recycled, mainly for downcycling, i.e. for lower quality applications (such as padding, insulators, or rags). By successfully manufacturing at pilot scale a white PET fibre that is 100 % enzymatically recycled from coloured textile waste, Carbios is paving the way for the circular economy in the textile industry. C-ZYME is now on the doorstep of industrialization and will soon enable the biggest brands to move closer to their sustainability goals. Textile waste that can also be used to manufacture food contact packaging In November 2020, Carbios had already produced the first transparent bottles from textile waste. These 100 % recycled PET bottles have now passed the food contact validation tests. This is an important step that paves the way for the use of a new waste source for the production of biorecycled PET food packaging. Separate collection of textile waste soon to be mandatory in Europe from 1 January 2025 the separate collection of textile waste, which is already in place in some countries, will be mandatory for all EU Member States (European Directive 2018/851 on waste). Carbios’ process will be one of the solutions that will enable this waste to be sustainably recovered and included in a truly circular economy model. These technological validations were carried out as part of the CE-PET research project, co-funded by ADEME. In particular, the project aimed to develop Carbios' enzymatic PET recycling process on textile waste. The C-ZYME technology is complementary to thermomechanical recycling and will make it possible to process plastic and textile waste deposits that are currently not or poorly recovered. For the validation of this stage of the project, Carbios received EUR 827,200 (EUR 206,800 in grants and EUR 620,400 in repayable advances). AT Biobased epicerol Technip Energies (Nanterre, France) announced that OCIKUMHO, a joint venture between OCIM (Kuching, Malaysia) and Kumho P&B Chemicals (Seoul, South Korea) has signed a license agreement for a 100,000 tonnes/a EPICEROL ® plant for the production of epichlorohydrin (ECH) from glycerine. ECH is a compound mainly used to produce epoxy resins. Its main applications serve the clean energy market, such as wind, solar, tidal, and electricity transmission, providing corrosion protection coatings. It is also used in the industrial, automotive, and packaging industries and as composites in the aerospace industry. Using a biobased raw material, Ocikumho’s unit will be integrated into a new processing complex using electricity made by hydropower, in Sarawak, Malaysia to serve the growing ECH market. Ocikumho will be the first to manufacture epichlorohydrin in Malaysia. Bhaskar Patel, Senior Vice President Sustainable Fuels, Chemicals and Circularity, commented: “Epicerol offers a cost-effective process with a reduced carbon footprint compared to traditional propylene-based ECH. This breakthrough technology produces no wastewater, fewer emissions, effluents, and harmful by-products, making it one of the most environmentally friendly processes possible”.AT Electrochemical conversion of CO 2 Avantium (Amsterdam, the Netherlands), announced that it has been awarded a EUR 3 million grant by the EU Horizon Europe programme for its participation in the 4-year research and development programme WaterProof. This programme aims to demonstrate the value of electrochemical conversion of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) into high-value chemicals and products. Avantium is a frontrunner in developing and commercialising innovative technologies for the production of chemicals and materials based on sustainable carbon feedstocks, i.e. carbon from plants or carbon from the air (CO 2 ). One of Avantium’s innovative technology platforms is called Volta Technology and uses electrochemistry to convert CO 2 to high-value products and chemical building blocks such as formic acid, oxalic acid, and glycolic acid. The latter two are key building blocks for polyesters and other materials, allowing the production of CO 2 -negative plastics. The WaterProof programme aims to demonstrate the full value chain of a closed carbon cycle. Under this programme, Avantium will convert CO 2 , from wastewater purification and waste incineration into formic acid using its proprietary catalytic electrochemistry platform. This formic acid can then be used to make new consumer products. This project will demonstrate that competitive and profitable business opportunities can be created by turning CO 2 into value-added products. AT 6 bioplastics MAGAZINE [03/22] Vol. 17

All figures available at Adipic acid (AA) 11-Aminoundecanoic acid (11-AA) 1,4-Butanediol (1,4-BDO) Dodecanedioic acid (DDDA) Epichlorohydrin (ECH) Ethylene Furan derivatives D-lactic acid (D-LA) L-lactic acid (L-LA) Lactide Monoethylene glycol (MEG) Monopropylene glycol (MPG) Naphtha 1,5-Pentametylenediamine (DN5) 1,3-Propanediol (1,3-PDO) Sebacic acid Succinic acid (SA) © | 2020 fossil available at Refining Polymerisation Formulation Processing Use renewable Depolymerisation Solvolysis Thermal depolymerisation Enzymolysis Purification Dissolution Recycling Conversion Pyrolysis Gasification allocated Recovery Recovery Recovery conventional © | 2021 © | 2020 PVC EPDM PP PMMA PE Vinyl chloride Propylene Unsaturated polyester resins Methyl methacrylate PEF Polyurethanes MEG Building blocks Natural rubber Aniline Ethylene for UPR Cellulose-based 2,5-FDCA polymers Building blocks for polyurethanes Levulinic acid Lignin-based polymers Naphtha Ethanol PET PFA 5-HMF/5-CMF FDME Furfuryl alcohol Waste oils Casein polymers Furfural Natural rubber Saccharose PTF Starch-containing Hemicellulose Lignocellulose 1,3 Propanediol polymer compounds Casein Fructose PTT Terephthalic Non-edible milk acid MPG NOPs Starch ECH Glycerol p-Xylene SBR Plant oils Fatty acids Castor oil 11-AA Glucose Isobutanol THF Sebacic Lysine PBT acid 1,4-Butanediol Succinic acid DDDA PBAT Caprolactame Adipic acid HMDA DN5 Sorbitol 3-HP Lactic acid Itaconic Acrylic PBS(x) acid acid Isosorbide PA Lactide Superabsorbent polymers Epoxy resins ABS PHA APC PLA available at ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ OH O OH HO OH HO OH O ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ OH HO OH O OH O © | 2021 nova Market and Trend Reports on Renewable Carbon The Best Available on Bio- and CO2-based Polymers & Building Blocks and Chemical Recycling Mimicking Nature – The PHA Industry Landscape Latest trends and 28 producer profiles Bio-based Naphtha and Mass Balance Approach Status & Outlook, Standards & Certification Schemes Bio-based Building Blocks and Polymers – Global Capacities, Production and Trends 2020–2025 Polymers Principle of Mass Balance Approach Feedstock Process Products Use of renewable feedstock in very first steps of chemical production (e.g. steam cracker) Utilisation of existing integrated production for all production steps Allocation of the renewable share to selected products Author: Jan Ravenstijn March 2022 This and other reports on renewable carbon are available at Authors: Michael Carus, Doris de Guzman and Harald Käb March 2021 This and other reports on renewable carbon are available at Authors: Pia Skoczinski, Michael Carus, Doris de Guzman, Harald Käb, Raj Chinthapalli, Jan Ravenstijn, Wolfgang Baltus and Achim Raschka January 2021 This and other reports on renewable carbon are available at Carbon Dioxide (CO 2) as Chemical Feedstock for Polymers Technologies, Polymers, Developers and Producers Chemical recycling – Status, Trends and Challenges Technologies, Sustainability, Policy and Key Players Plastic recycling and recovery routes Production of Cannabinoids via Extraction, Chemical Synthesis and Especially Biotechnology Current Technologies, Potential & Drawbacks and Future Development Virgin Feedstock Renewable Feedstock Plant extraction Chemical synthesis Monomer Secondary valuable materials Chemicals Fuels Others Cannabinoids Polymer Primary recycling (mechanical) Plastic Product Secondary recycling (mechanical) Tertiary recycling (chemical) CO 2 capture Genetic engineering Plant extraction Biotechnological production Product (end-of-use) Quaternary recycling (energy recovery) Energy Landfill Authors: Pauline Ruiz, Achim Raschka, Pia Skoczinski, Jan Ravenstijn and Michael Carus, nova-Institut GmbH, Germany January 2021 This and other reports on renewable carbon are available at Author: Lars Krause, Florian Dietrich, Pia Skoczinski, Michael Carus, Pauline Ruiz, Lara Dammer, Achim Raschka, nova-Institut GmbH, Germany November 2020 This and other reports on the bio- and CO 2-based economy are available at Authors: Pia Skoczinski, Franjo Grotenhermen, Bernhard Beitzke, Michael Carus and Achim Raschka January 2021 This and other reports on renewable carbon are available at Commercialisation updates on bio-based building blocks Levulinic acid – A versatile platform chemical for a variety of market applications Global market dynamics, demand/supply, trends and market potential Succinic acid – From a promising building block to a slow seller What will a realistic future market look like? Production capacities (million tonnes) Bio-based building blocks Evolution of worldwide production capacities from 2011 to 2024 4 3 2 1 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2024 OH OH O HO diphenolic acid O H 2N OH O 5-aminolevulinic acid O O OH O O levulinate ketal O OH O levulinic acid O OR O levulinic ester O O ɣ-valerolactone O HO OH O succinic acid H N O 5-methyl-2-pyrrolidone Pharmaceutical/Cosmetic Acidic ingredient for denture cleaner/toothpaste Antidote Calcium-succinate is anticarcinogenic Efferescent tablets Intermediate for perfumes Pharmaceutical intermediates (sedatives, antiphlegm/-phogistics, antibacterial, disinfectant) Preservative for toiletries Removes fish odour Used in the preparation of vitamin A Food Bread-softening agent Flavour-enhancer Flavouring agent and acidic seasoning in beverages/food Microencapsulation of flavouring oils Preservative (chicken, dog food) Protein gelatinisation and in dry gelatine desserts/cake flavourings Used in synthesis of modified starch Succinic Acid Industrial De-icer Engineering plastics and epoxy curing agents/hardeners Herbicides, fungicides, regulators of plantgrowth Intermediate for lacquers + photographic chemicals Plasticizer (replaces phtalates, adipic acid) Polymers Solvents, lubricants Surface cleaning agent (metal-/electronic-/semiconductor-industry) Other Anodizing Aluminium Chemical metal plating, electroplating baths Coatings, inks, pigments (powder/radiation-curable coating, resins for water-based paint, dye intermediate, photocurable ink, toners) Fabric finish, dyeing aid for fibres Part of antismut-treatment for barley seeds Preservative for cut flowers Soil-chelating agent Author: Doris de Guzman, Tecnon OrbiChem, United Kingdom Updated Executive Summary and Market Review May 2020 – Originally published February 2020 This and other reports on the bio- and CO 2-based economy are available at Authors: Achim Raschka, Pia Skoczinski, Raj Chinthapalli, Ángel Puente and Michael Carus, nova-Institut GmbH, Germany October 2019 This and other reports on the bio-based economy are available at Authors: Raj Chinthapalli, Ángel Puente, Pia Skoczinski, Achim Raschka, Michael Carus, nova-Institut GmbH, Germany October 2019 This and other reports on the bio-based economy are available at bioplastics MAGAZINE [03/22] Vol. 17 7

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