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issue 03/2021

Highlights: Bottles / Blow Moulding Joining Bioplastics Basics: Carbon Capture

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fossil available at available at renewable Use of renewable feedstock in very first steps of chemical production (e.g. steam cracker) OH O OH HO OH HO Utilisation of existing integrated production for all production steps OH O OH HO OH O allocated OH O Allocation of the renewable share to selected products conventional © | 2021 © | 2021 PVC EPDM PP PMMA PE Vinyl chloride Propylene Unsaturated polyester resins Methyl methacrylate PEF Polyurethanes MEG Building blocks Natural rubber Aniline Ethylene for UPR Cellulose-based 2,5-FDCA polymers Building blocks for polyurethanes Levulinic acid Lignin-based polymers Naphtha Ethanol PET PFA 5-HMF/5-CMF FDME Furfuryl alcohol Waste oils Casein polymers Furfural Natural rubber Saccharose PTF Starch-containing Hemicellulose Lignocellulose 1,3 Propanediol polymer compounds Casein Fructose PTT Terephthalic Non-edible milk acid MPG NOPs Starch ECH Glycerol p-Xylene SBR Plant oils Fatty acids Castor oil 11-AA Glucose Isobutanol THF Sebacic Lysine PBT acid 1,4-Butanediol Succinic acid DDDA PBAT Caprolactame Adipic acid HMDA DN5 Sorbitol 3-HP Lactic acid Itaconic Acrylic PBS(x) acid acid Isosorbide PA Lactide Superabsorbent polymers Epoxy resins ABS PHA APC PLA 4 3 2 1 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2024 All figures available at Adipic acid (AA) 11-Aminoundecanoic acid (11-AA) 1,4-Butanediol (1,4-BDO) Dodecanedioic acid (DDDA) Epichlorohydrin (ECH) Ethylene Furan derivatives D-lactic acid (D-LA) L-lactic acid (L-LA) Lactide Monoethylene glycol (MEG) Monopropylene glycol (MPG) Naphtha 1,5-Pentametylenediamine (DN5) 1,3-Propanediol (1,3-PDO) Sebacic acid Succinic acid (SA) © | 2020 OH OH O HO diphenolic acid O H 2N OH O 5-aminolevulinic acid O O OH O O levulinate ketal O OR O levulinic ester O O ɣ-valerolactone O HO OH O succinic acid O 5-methyl-2-pyrrolidone ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Refining Polymerisation Formulation Processing Use Depolymerisation Solvolysis Thermal depolymerisation Enzymolysis Purification Dissolution Recycling Conversion Pyrolysis Gasification ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Recovery Recovery Recovery © | 2020 NEW Bio-based Naphtha and Mass Balance Approach DATA FOR 2020 Bio-based Building Blocks and Polymers – Global Capacities, Production and Trends 2020–2025 REVISED AND EXTENDED 2021 Carbon Dioxide (CO 2) as Chemical Feedstock for Polymers NEW SUMMER SPECIAL 20% DISCOUNT BY 31 AUGUST 2021 CODE: novaSumSpec20 Institute for Ecology and Innovation Market and Trend Reports Chemical recycling – Status, Trends and Challenges Status & Outlook, Standards & Certification Schemes Polymers Technologies, Polymers, Developers and Producers Technologies, Sustainability, Policy and Key Players Plastic recycling and recovery routes Principle of Mass Balance Approach Feedstock Process Products Primary recycling (mechanical) Virgin Feedstock Monomer Polymer Plastic Product Product (end-of-use) Renewable Feedstock Secondary recycling (mechanical) Tertiary recycling (chemical) Quaternary recycling (energy recovery) Secondary valuable materials CO 2 capture Energy Chemicals Fuels Others Landfill Authors: Michael Carus, Doris de Guzman and Harald Käb March 2021 This and other reports on renewable carbon are available at Authors: Pia Skoczinski, Michael Carus, Doris de Guzman, Harald Käb, Raj Chinthapalli, Jan Ravenstijn, Wolfgang Baltus and Achim Raschka January 2021 This and other reports on renewable carbon are available at Authors: Pauline Ruiz, Achim Raschka, Pia Skoczinski, Jan Ravenstijn and Michael Carus, nova-Institut GmbH, Germany January 2021 This and other reports on renewable carbon are available at Author: Lars Krause, Florian Dietrich, Pia Skoczinski, Michael Carus, Pauline Ruiz, Lara Dammer, Achim Raschka, nova-Institut GmbH, Germany November 2020 This and other reports on the bio- and CO 2-based economy are available at THE BEST MARKET REPORTS AVAILABLE Bio- and CO 2 -based Polymers & Building Blocks Production of Cannabinoids via Extraction, Chemical Synthesis and Especially Biotechnology Commercialisation updates on bio-based building blocks Levulinic acid – A versatile platform chemical for a variety of market applications Succinic acid – From a promising building block to a slow seller Current Technologies, Potential & Drawbacks and Future Development Global market dynamics, demand/supply, trends and market potential What will a realistic future market look like? Genetic engineering Plant extraction Plant extraction Cannabinoids Chemical synthesis Biotechnological production Production capacities (million tonnes) Bio-based building blocks Evolution of worldwide production capacities from 2011 to 2024 O OH O levulinic acid H N Pharmaceutical/Cosmetic Industrial Acidic ingredient for denture cleaner/toothpaste De-icer Antidote Engineering plastics and epoxy curing Calcium-succinate is anticarcinogenic agents/hardeners Efferescent tablets Herbicides, fungicides, regulators of plantgrowth Intermediate for perfumes Intermediate for lacquers + photographic chemicals Pharmaceutical intermediates (sedatives, Plasticizer (replaces phtalates, adipic acid) antiphlegm/-phogistics, antibacterial, disinfectant) Polymers Preservative for toiletries Solvents, lubricants Removes fish odour Surface cleaning agent Used in the preparation of vitamin A (metal-/electronic-/semiconductor-industry) Succinic Food Acid Other Bread-softening agent Flavour-enhancer Flavouring agent and acidic seasoning in beverages/food Microencapsulation of flavouring oils Preservative (chicken, dog food) Protein gelatinisation and in dry gelatine desserts/cake flavourings Used in synthesis of modified starch Anodizing Aluminium Chemical metal plating, electroplating baths Coatings, inks, pigments (powder/radiation-curable coating, resins for water-based paint, dye intermediate, photocurable ink, toners) Fabric finish, dyeing aid for fibres Part of antismut-treatment for barley seeds Preservative for cut flowers Soil-chelating agent Authors: Pia Skoczinski, Franjo Grotenhermen, Bernhard Beitzke, Michael Carus and Achim Raschka Author: Doris de Guzman, Tecnon OrbiChem, United Kingdom Authors: Achim Raschka, Pia Skoczinski, Raj Chinthapalli, Ángel Puente and Michael Carus, nova-Institut GmbH, Germany Authors: Raj Chinthapalli, Ángel Puente, Pia Skoczinski, Achim Raschka, Michael Carus, nova-Institut GmbH, Germany January 2021 This and other reports on renewable carbon are available at Updated Executive Summary and Market Review May 2020 – Originally published February 2020 This and other reports on the bio- and CO 2-based economy are available at October 2019 This and other reports on the bio-based economy are available at October 2019 This and other reports on the bio-based economy are available at Standards and labels for bio-based products Bio-based polymers, a revolutionary change Comprehensive trend report on PHA, PLA, PUR/TPU, PA and polymers based on FDCA and SA: Latest developments, producers, drivers and lessons learnt Fff Bio-based polymers, a revolutionary change Market study on the consumption of biodegradable and compostable plastic products in Europe 2015 and 2020 A comprehensive market research report including consumption figures by polymer and application types as well as by geography, plus analyses of key players, relevant policies and legislation and a special feature on biodegradation and composting standards and labels Bestsellers Brand Views and Adoption of Bio-based Polymers Jan Ravenstijn March 2017 E-mail: Mobile: +31.6.2247.8593 Picture: Gehr Kunststoffwerk Disposable tableware Biowaste bags Carrier bags Rigid packaging Flexible packaging Authors: Lara Dammer, Michael Carus and Dr. Asta Partanen nova-Institut GmbH, Germany May 2017 This and other reports on the bio-based economy are available at Author: Jan Ravenstijn, Jan Ravenstijn Consulting, the Netherlands April 2017 This and other reports on the bio-based economy are available at Authors: Harald Kaeb (narocon, lead), Florence Aeschelmann, Lara Dammer, Michael Carus (nova-Institute) April 2016 This and other reports on the bio-based economy are available at Author: Dr. Harald Kaeb, narocon Innovation Consulting, Germany January 2016 This and other reports on the bio-based economy are available at 32 bioplastics MAGAZINE [03/21] Vol. 16

Plastics and adhesives from unsold baked goods Joining Bioplastics In Germany, more than 500,000 tonnes of old baked goods are produced each year which, without additional processing, are not suitable for further consumption or as animal feed. Until now, their use has been primarily energetic, for example in combustion processes or in biogas plants. Old bakery products such as bread, rolls, or cakes contain large quantities of starch. Researchers at the Fraunhofer WKI (Braunschweig, Germany) have succeeded in extracting the basic chemical hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) from this starch, which offers potential for a wide range of applications. “In our sub-project, we determined the application potential for HMF in more detail, as regionally available old bakery products represent a meaningful resource over and above energetic utilization,” explained the Project Manager Steven Eschig. The project team at the University of Hohenheim developed a process for the so-called hydrothermal treatment of old bakery products, through which moist biomasses are converted under heat and slightly increased pressure. From the old bakery products and the starch contained therein in large quantities, HMF is created in aqueous solution and carbon. “The process parameters, such as pH value, temperature, and duration, are selected to achieve the highest possible yields of HMF,” explained Markus Götz, employee in the specialist area of Andrea Kruse at the University of Hohenheim, who is leading the project. Carbon is produced as a by-product of the hydrothermal treatment. It can be used as a biofuel or as a soil fertilizer. Simultaneously, it is a good adsorbent and can therefore be utilized as activated carbon. “Here at the Fraunhofer WKI, our task was to isolate the HMF from the aqueous solution and to process it further,“ said Eschig. He and his team discovered that methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) works better as an extraction agent than chloroform (CHCI 3 ) and that the addition of sodium chloride has a positive effect on the quantity extracted. In addition, they were able to prepare and characterize polyesters using furandicarboxylic acid. HMF is a versatile starting material, as it can serve as a substitute for formaldehyde, for example in formaldehydefree resins and bio-adhesives. Furthermore, it can form chemical bonds which can be dissolved again when the temperature is increased. This enables the production of materials with self-healing properties. The possibility of the reversible dissolution of the chemical bonds can also be used for switchable adhesives, as a result of which new recycling possibilities are created. Via chemical modifications, so-called dialcohols (reductive) or dicarboxylic acid (oxidative) can be obtained from HMF. They can be used as building blocks for polymers, for example in the manufacture of coatings or fibres. The production of the plastic polyethylene furandicarboxylate (PEF) as a PET substitute has already been tested. PEF made from renewable raw materials is not only ecologically advantageous; it is also lighter and more durable and therefore of great interest to the beverage industry. The researchers were able to demonstrate that old bakery products are suitable for higher-value applications and represent an attractive alternative for the industry as part of a biobased recycling economy. The project was funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) via Project Management Jülich. AT HMF as a brown aqueous solution and as a brownish solid and carbon (here in powder form). HMF can be further processed to create, among other things, polyester resins. These can be used to produce aqueous polyurethane dispersions (white liquid) (Photo Fraunhofer WKI - Manuela-Lingnau). bioplastics MAGAZINE [03/21] Vol. 16 33

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