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Issue 03/2020

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Highlights: Additives/Masterbatches Marine Littering

Injection Moulding PA5X

Injection Moulding PA5X - a sustainable alternative solution Cathay Biotech, Shanghai, China, is a high-tech enterprise specializing in synthetic biology, biomaterial research and biomanufacturing on a commercial scale. Cathay manufactures polyamides that are based on its 100% renewable 1,5-pentanediamine (DN5). The option of using either fossil-based or renewable diacids enables the bio-content level of PA5X to be as high as 100%. It offers a sustainable alternative way, from PA56 and PA510 to PA516, to replace traditional polyamides, such as PA66, PA610, PA11 or PA12. These biobased polyamide products for the textile branch, marketed under the TERRYL® brand name, are currently being used in light sports fashion clothing, industrial clothing and other fields. Its ECOPENT® engineering materials are being widely used in producing automobile parts, electronics & electrical appliances, home appliance, construction industries. This article mainly focuses on the engineering plastic resin, Ecopent. Cathay’s PA5X can be processed on existing equipment and tools, avoiding the need for further investment, which is beneficial for the end-users. Currently, Cathay offers a family of polyamides over a very wide range of melting points. Middle Melting Point biobased polyamide Ecopent 1273 and 2260 Ecopent 1273 (PA56) is synthesized by DN5 and adipic acid and has good mechanical properties. The introduction of an odd-numbered carbon chain from DN5 gives Ecopent 1273 outstanding properties, such as inherent flame resistance, flowability and wear resistance. It is an excellent engineering plastic for automobile parts, electrical appliances, etc. Specifically, Ecopent 1273 is suitable for laser welding due to its high transparency. Its glass-filled counterpart possesses a highly desired surface quality compared to traditional PA66 solutions. Biobased Ecopent 1273’s injection molding processability is similar to that of PA66. This product is dehumidified with maximum temperature of 110 °C for 5 hours and processed at temperatures of 270 °C to 295 °C. Subsequently, mold surface temperatures in the range of 60 °C ~ 90 °C are optimal. Under low processing temperatures, biobased polyamide resins may not flow well and lead to a defective appearance or shrinkage of the molded part. Ecopent 2260 (PA56T) is another renewable polyamide polycondensated from DN5 and various diacids which has a higher strength than Ecopent 1273. Its modulus and water absorption rate is significantly lower than that of Ecopent 1273 and the melting point of Ecopent 2260 (270 °C) is higher than that of Ecopent 1273. Consequently, processing temperatures of 280 °C to 300 °C are required. Otherwise, the injection conditions are similar to Ecopent 1273’s. Low melting point biobased polyamide Ecopent 3100 and 3600 Ecopent 3100 (PA510) is a 100 % biobased polyamide, linking DN5 with sebacic acid, which has low density, low water absorption, excellent wear resistance, good transparency, and dimension stability. It is suitable for injection molding, extrusion, film for applications in aerospace, automotive, textile, electrical, etc. Ecopent 3100 injection molding process is close to that of PA610. The dehumidification process requires a maximum temperature of 100 °C for 5 hours and the processing temperatures are between 230 °C to 250 °C. Subsequently, maintaining mold surface temperatures in the range of 60 °C ~ 90 °C are optimal. Ecopent 3600 (PA516) is the longest polyamide that Cathay currently offers to the market. Its melting point is lower than that of Ecopent 3100, which provides for excellent processability. Bio-based DN5 Dicarboxylic acids Bio-based polyamide PA5X Middle Melting point Ecopent1273‚ Ecopent 2260 Application in transportation, electrical appliances, cable ties, heat insulation strip, etc. Low Melting point Ecopent3100 Ecopent 3600 Application in automotive oil hose, filter, cable protective material, military products. etc. 40 bioplastics MAGAZINE [03/20] Vol. 15

Injection Moulding By: Xiaohui, Zhou Yuanping, Li Engineering Plastics Application Development Engineer Cathay Biotech Inc. Shanghai, China Ecopent 3600 injection molding process is close to the PA1010 and PA1012. The product is dehumidified at a maximum temperature of 90 °C for 5 hours, and the processing temperature is 210 °C to 230 °C. Subsequently, maintaining mold surface temperatures in the range of 60 °C ~ 90 °C are optimal. Glass fiber reinforced biobased polyamide and water absorption properties To counteract the high-water absorption exhibited by polyamides, compounding with glass fibers or mica is required to meet industrial dimensional stability requirements. 30 % GF filled Ecopent 1273 and 2260 both show a tensile and flexural strength similar to reinforced PA66. The impact strength of reinforced composites effectively increases from 12 KJ/m2 to 16 KJ/m2 with an Ecopent 3600 matrix. Longer chain diacids reduce the lower water absorption of the subsequent polyamide. The water absorption rate of Ecopent 3600 can reach 0.24 % at 60 °C, 2 hours, which is far lower than that of traditional PA66. Application Among the different types of biobased polyamide, Ecopent 1273 and Ecopent 2000 are high-performance engineering plastics, which can replace PA66 in applications including automotive, electrical, electronic, and cable ties. Ecopent 3100 has low water absorption, dimensional stability and cold resistance, so it can replace PA610 or PA612 in electronic shells and industrial consumer products. The practical performance of Ecopent 3100 is relatively balanced ; it can be used to over-mold metal and electronic components, transmission parts, connectors and tubes. Ecopent 3600, which has a C16 chain, is characterized by an extremely low water absorption rate, ductility and chemical resistance and can replace PA1010, PA1012 in applications such as steam brake pipes, petroleum pipelines, etc. Moreover, because of low amide density, the Dielectric constant (Dk) and Dissipation factor (Df) of Ecopent 3600 will play an important role in 5G applications worldwide. Comparison of basic physical properties of different materials 140 — 120 — 100 — 80 — 60 — 40 — 9.0 8.0 7.0 6.0 5.0 4.0 3.0 2.0 20 — 0 — Tensile Strength (MPa) Flexural Strength (MPa) 1.0 0.0 Izod Notched Is (KJ/m2) PA66 Ecopent 1273 Ecopent 2260 Ecopent 3100 Ecopent 3600 Comparison of physical properties of different materials with 30 % GF 350 — 300 — 250 — 200 — 150 — 100 — 18.0 16.0 14.0 12.0 10.0 8.0 6.0 4.0 50 — 0 — 2.0 0.0 Tensile Strength (MPa) Flexural Strength (MPa) Izod Notched Is (KJ/m2) PA66 Ecopent 1273 Ecopent 2260 Ecopent 3100 Ecopent 3600 Comparison of water absorption of different materials with 30 % GF 3.00 % — 2.50 % — 2.00 % — 1.50 % — 1.00 % — 0.50 % — 0.00 % — PA66 Ecopent 1273 Ecopent 2260 Ecopent 3100 Ecopent 3600 bioplastics MAGAZINE [03/20] Vol. 15 41

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