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Issue 03/2015

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  • Bioplastics
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Thermoset However,

Thermoset However, alternative biobased solutions with epoxidized plant oils suffer from low strength, stiffness, and glass transition temperature as shown in Figure 3 and cannot compete with the lignin-containing formulations. Further on, the above partially biobased lignin system was used for prepreg formulations and bulk moulding compounds. Prepregs with 50 % jute fabric could be stored at -8 °C for 17 weeks giving 110 MPa strength and 7 GPa stiffness after curing. Bulk moulding compounds with 60 % sawdust were compression moulded to give 60 MPa strength and 5.3 GPa modulus. Application example The above mentioned jute fabric composites were used to manufacture an LED light element prototype called Prachteck in cooperation with the Institute for Plastics and Recycling (University of Kassel, Germany), and Alfred Pracht Lichttechnik (Dautphetal, Germany) [10]. This kind of light element was presented at the K show 2013 in Düsseldorf, Germany, as an application example. Conclusion A clear trend is recognized to utilize lignin as an abundant renewable resource rather than just burning it. Big pulping companies start to think in this direction and the process is flanked by industrial developments to isolate lignin from spent liquor on the one hand, and by investigating possible applications on the other. Lignin structure and reactivity makes it a promising candidate for biobased resin formulations as shown for an epoxy resin system. References [1] Freudenberg, K. und A.C. Neish (1968): „Constitution and Biosynthesis of Lignin.” Springer Verlag. Heidelberg-Berlin-New York [2] Toland J, Galasso L, Lees D, Rodden G, in Pulp Paper International, Vol. Paperloop, 2002, p. 5 [3] Y. NI, Q. HU (1995) Alcell ® Lignin Solubility in Ethanol-Water Mixtures. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 57, p. 1441 – 144 [4] Lindner, A., Wegener, G. (1988) Characterization of lignins from organosolv pulping according to the organocell process. 1. Elemental analysis, nonlignin portions and functional-groups. Journal of Wood Chemistry and Technology, 8(3), p. 323 – 340. [5] Lora, Jairo; Glasser, Wolfgang (2002) Recent Industrial Applications of Lignin: A Sustainable Alternative to Nonrenewable Materials. J. of Pol. Env.10, p. 39 – 48. [6] [7] [8] K. H. Kleinemeier in O. Faix und D. Meier (Hrsg) 1st European Workshop on Lignocellulosics and Pulp, 1990, Verlag M. Wiedebusch, Hamburg 1991 [9] Kosbar, L. L., Gelorme, J. (1997) Biobased epoxy resins for computer components and printed wiring boards. Proceedings of the 1997 IEEE International Symposium on Electronics and the Environment, ISEE-1997. pp. 28 – 32. [10] Project sponsored by the Federal Ministry of Food and Agriculture via the Specialist agency renewable raw materials e. V. (FNR), FKZ: 22025808 [11] Fiege, H., Voges, H.-W., Hamamoto, T., Umemura, S., Iwata, T., Miki, H., Fujita, Y., Buysch, H.-J., Garbe, D., Paulus, W. (2000) Phenol derivatives. In: Ullmann’s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. pp. 521 – 582. [12] Dracosa AG, personal communication [13] Composite Solutions AG; (Data sheets SR 1700, SR 5550, SR 8500) Carbon Dioxide as Feedstock for Chemistry and Polymers 29 – 30 September 2015, Essen (Germany) 4 th Conference Team Michael Carus CEO Barbara Dommermuth Programme, Poster session +49 (0)2233 4814-56 Dominik Vogt Conference Manager, Organisation, Exhibition, Sponsoring +49 (0)2233 4814-49 Jutta Millich Partners & Media Partners +49 (0)561 503580-44 For the 4 th year in a row, the nova-Institute will organize the conference „Carbon Dioxide as Feedstock for Chemistry and Polymers“ on 29 - 30 September 2015 in the “Haus der Technik” in Essen, Germany. CO 2 as chemical feedstock is a big challenge and chance for sustainable chemistry. Over the last few years, the rise of this topic has developed from several research projects and industrial applications to become more and more dynamic, especially in the fields of solar fuels (power-to-fuel, power-to-gas) – but also in CO 2 -based chemicals and polymers. Several players are very active and will showcase some enhanced and also new applications using carbon dioxide as feedstock. The conference will be the biggest event on Carbon Capture and Utilization (CCU) in 2015. Attending this conference will be invaluable for businessmen and academics who wish to get a full picture of how this new and exciting scenario is unfolding, as well as providing an opportunity to meet the right business or academic partners for future alliances. Free booth – only a 2-days conference entrance ticket is needed! Early Bird Reduction of 15% until the end of April 2015. Discount code: earlybird2015 More information can be found at Venue Haus der Technik e.V. Hollestr. 1 45127 Essen, Germany Tel: +49 (0) 201/18 03-1 Organiser nova-Institute Chemiepark Knapsack Industriestraße 300 50354 Hürth, Germany 32 bioplastics MAGAZINE [03/15] Vol. 10

Thermoset 100 % bio-based epoxy compounds Nagase ChemteX is a Japanese chemical manufacturer and is supplying high-performance, high added-value chemical products to meet their customers’ needs in a number of sectors, from electronics and life sciences to automobiles and the sustainability business. The product DENACOL has become a benchmark in the world of aliphatic epoxies and has unique characteristics of water solubility, made from epoxy compounds. Biobased Denacol GSR series are made from natural renewable resources – such as isosorbide, etc. – and show high reactivity with active hydrogen from carboxyl groups, amino groups and hydroxyl groups. Therefore, they work in textiles, paper finishing, coatings, adhesives, molding compounds and specialty polymers as a good crosslinking agent. Table 1 gives an overview about the product line-up All these products show an excellent performance, derived from their unique chemical structure of natural resources. For instance, Denacol GSR-101W is a special epoxy compound based on an isosorbide structure and epoxy resins hardened with this product exhibit various interesting features, such as good toughness, high reactivity, low viscosity and excellent light stability. Figure 1 shows the stress-strain behaviour for different formulations. Another interesting feature is the hardness of coatings made with Denacol. Coating films formulated with Denacol GSR-101W show higher pencil hardness with good adhesion compared to BPA type epoxy resin, on aluminum plate. Denacol GSR-103W and GSR-104W have multifunctional epoxy groups and can improve adhesion performance with metal plate. All grades show a high water solubility, therefore are applicable for waterborne system and also contribute to a VOC free environment. MT Figure 1: Stress-strain behaviour Stress / MPa 60 40 20 0 0 Ref. Composition 1 Composition 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 Strain / % Composition 1 2 Ref. Denacol GSR-101 100 37 0 TG-DDM 1 0 63 100 DDS 2 23 27 30 1 Tetraglycidyl diaminodiphenyl methane type epoxy resin (WPE: 120 g/eq.) 2 Diaminodiphenyl sulfone Test item 3 Denacol GSR-101 BPA type epoxy resine 4 Pencil hardness 2H B Adhesion 10 10 3 Substrate: Aluminium Composition: Epoxy resin/phenol novolac resin 4 WPR: 473 g/eq. Table 1 Grade Chemical name WPE (g/eq.) Total chlorine content(%) Viscosity (mPa∙s, 25 °C) Bio-based content* (%) GSR-101W Isosorbide type epoxy resin 170 0.4 4,000 100 GSR-103W Aliphatic epoxy resin 144 10.3 302 98 GSR-104W Aliphatic epoxy resin 169 12.6 3,700 98 bioplastics MAGAZINE [03/15] Vol. 10 33

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