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issue 02/2021

  • Text
  • Balance
  • Moulding
  • Carbon
  • Recycling
  • Plastics
  • Sustainable
  • Products
  • Renewable
  • Biobased
  • Packaging
  • Materials
  • Bioplastics
Highlights: Injection Moulding Basics: Mass Balance

Recycling From cotton

Recycling From cotton rag to modern functional textiles Every year, an estimated 25 million tonnes of cotton textiles are discarded around the world. In total, 100 million tonnes of textiles are thrown out. In Sweden barely 5 % is recycled, most of the material goes straight into an incinerator and becomes district heating. In other places, it is even worse, as clothes usually end up in landfills. “Considering that cotton is a renewable resource, this is not particularly energy-efficient”, says Edvin Ruuth, a researcher in chemical engineering at Lund University. “Some fabrics still have such strong fibres that they can be reused. This is done today and could be done even more in future. But a lot of the fabric that is discarded has fibres that are too short for reuse, and sooner or later all cotton fibres become too short for the process known as fibre regeneration.” Now the researchers succeeded in breaking down the plant fibre in cotton – the cellulose – into smaller components. The process involves soaking the fabrics in sulphuric acid. The result is a clear, dark, amber-coloured sugar solution. “The secret is to find the right combination of temperature and sulphuric acid concentration”, explains Ruuth, who finetuned the ‘recipe’ together with doctoral student Miguel Sanchis-Sebastiá and Professor Ola Wallberg. Glucose is a very flexible molecule and has many potential uses, according to Ruuth. “Our plan is to produce chemicals which in turn can become various types of textiles, including spandex and nylon. An alternative use could be to produce ethanol.” One advantage of this step would be to keep the value of the original biobased material, cotton, within the textile industry value chain. This would reduce the waste produced by the industry, while at the same time reducing the amount of raw material needed for textile production. One of the challenges is to overcome the complex structure of cotton cellulose. “What makes cotton unique is that its cellulose has high crystallinity. This makes it difficult to break down the chemicals and reuse their components. In addition, there are a lot of surface treatment substances, dyes, and other pollutants which must be removed. And structurally, a terrycloth towel and an old pair of jeans are very different”, says Ruuth. The concept of hydrolyzing pure cotton is nothing new per se, the difficulty has been to make the process effective, economically viable, and attractive. When Ruuth started making glucose out of fabrics a year ago, the return was a paltry 3–4 %. Now he and his colleagues have reached as much as 90 %. Once the recipe formulation is complete, it will be both relatively simple and cheap to use. However, for the process to become a reality, the logistics must work. There is currently no established way of managing and sorting various textiles that are not sent to ordinary clothing donation points. Fortunately, a recycling centre unlike any other in the world is currently under construction in Malmö, where clothing is sorted automatically using a sensor. The aim is to use recycled textiles to make padding, insulation, and cloth for industrial cleaning, slowly increasing the amount of textiles recycled from 3,000 to 16,000 tonnes over five years. The project marks the third phase of the Swedish Innovation Platform for Textile Sorting (Siptex), coordinated by IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, and comes after a successful pilot project in Avesta. Once the technology from Lund is in place, it may be possible to not only reduce the proportion of fabrics going to district heating but also increase the quality of the recycled fabrics, avoiding down-cycling as much as possible. The research was recently awarded EUR 590,000 (SEK 6 million ) in funding by the Swedish Energy Agency. AT Reference: Miguel Sanchis-Sebastiá, Edvin Ruuth, Lars Stigsson, Mats Galbe, Ola Wallberg. Novel sustainable alternatives for the fashion industry: A method of chemically recycling waste textiles via acid hydrolysis. Waste Management, 2021; 121: 248 DOI:10.1016/j.wasman.2020.12.024 | Edvin Ruuth of Lund University (screenshot from the video clip © Lund University) Cotton waste (left), clear, dark, amber-coloured sugar solution (right) (screenshot from the video clip © Lund University) Info See a video-clip at: -prLs08 26 bioplastics MAGAZINE [02/21] Vol. 16

fossil available at renewable Use of renewable feedstock in very first steps of chemical production (e.g. steam cracker) Refining Polymerisation Formulation Processing Use Depolymerisation Solvolysis Thermal depolymerisation Enzymolysis Purification Dissolution Utilisation of existing integrated production for all production steps Recycling Conversion Pyrolysis Gasification allocated Allocation of the renewable share to selected products Recovery Recovery Recovery conventional © | 2021 © | 2020 PVC EPDM PMMA PP PE Vinyl chloride Propylene Unsaturated polyester resins Methyl methacrylate PEF Polyurethanes MEG Building blocks Natural rubber Aniline Ethylene for UPR Cellulose-based 2,5-FDCA polymers Building blocks for polyurethanes Levulinic acid Lignin-based polymers Naphtha Ethanol PET PFA 5-HMF/5-CMF FDME Furfuryl alcohol Waste oils Casein polymers Furfural Natural rubber Saccharose PTF Starch-containing Hemicellulose Lignocellulose 1,3 Propanediol polymer compounds Casein Fructose PTT Terephthalic Non-edible milk acid MPG NOPs Starch ECH Glycerol p-Xylene SBR Plant oils Fatty acids Castor oil 11-AA Glucose Isobutanol THF Sebacic Lysine PBT acid 1,4-Butanediol Succinic acid DDDA PBAT Caprolactame Adipic acid HMDA DN5 Sorbitol 3-HP Lactic acid Itaconic Acrylic PBS(x) acid acid Isosorbide PA Lactide Superabsorbent polymers Epoxy resins ABS PHA APC PLA 4 3 2 1 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2024 All figures available at Adipic acid (AA) 11-Aminoundecanoic acid (11-AA) 1,4-Butanediol (1,4-BDO) Dodecanedioic acid (DDDA) Epichlorohydrin (ECH) Ethylene Furan derivatives D-lactic acid (D-LA) L-lactic acid (L-LA) Lactide Monoethylene glycol (MEG) Monopropylene glycol (MPG) Naphtha 1,5-Pentametylenediamine (DN5) 1,3-Propanediol (1,3-PDO) Sebacic acid Succinic acid (SA) © | 2020 OH OH O HO diphenolic acid O H 2N OH O 5-aminolevulinic acid O O OH O O levulinate ketal O OR O levulinic ester O O ɣ-valerolactone O HO OH O succinic acid O 5-methyl-2-pyrrolidone available at ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ OH O OH HO OH HO OH O ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ OH HO OH O OH O © | 2021 Market and Trend Reports NEW Bio-based Naphtha and Mass Balance Approach DATA FOR 2020 Bio-based Building Blocks and Polymers – Global Capacities, Production and Trends 2020–2025 REVISED AND EXTENDED 2021 Carbon Dioxide (CO 2) as Chemical Feedstock for Polymers NEW Institute for Ecology and Innovation Production of Cannabinoids via Extraction, Chemical Synthesis and Especially Biotechnology Automotive Status & Outlook, Standards & Certification Schemes Polymers Technologies, Polymers, Developers and Producers Current Technologies, Potential & Drawbacks and Future Development Principle of Mass Balance Approach Plant extraction Chemical synthesis Feedstock Process Products Cannabinoids Genetic engineering Plant extraction Biotechnological production Authors: Michael Carus, Doris de Guzman and Harald Käb March 2021 This and other reports on renewable carbon are available at Authors: Pia Skoczinski, Michael Carus, Doris de Guzman, Harald Käb, Raj Chinthapalli, Jan Ravenstijn, Wolfgang Baltus and Achim Raschka January 2021 This and other reports on renewable carbon are available at Authors: Pauline Ruiz, Achim Raschka, Pia Skoczinski, Jan Ravenstijn and Michael Carus, nova-Institut GmbH, Germany January 2021 This and other reports on renewable carbon are available at Authors: Pia Skoczinski, Franjo Grotenhermen, Bernhard Beitzke, Michael Carus and Achim Raschka January 2021 This and other reports on renewable carbon are available at THE BEST MARKET REPORTS AVAILABLE Bio- and CO 2 -based Polymers & Building Blocks Chemical recycling – Status, Trends and Challenges Commercialisation updates on bio-based building blocks Levulinic acid – A versatile platform chemical for a variety of market applications Succinic acid – From a promising building block to a slow seller Technologies, Sustainability, Policy and Key Players Global market dynamics, demand/supply, trends and market potential What will a realistic future market look like? Primary recycling (mechanical) Virgin Feedstock Plastic recycling and recovery routes Monomer Polymer Plastic Product Product (end-of-use) Landfill Renewable Feedstock Secondary recycling (mechanical) Tertiary recycling (chemical) Quaternary recycling (energy recovery) Secondary valuable materials CO 2 capture Energy Chemicals Fuels Others Production capacities (million tonnes) Bio-based building blocks Evolution of worldwide production capacities from 2011 to 2024 O OH O levulinic acid H N Pharmaceutical/Cosmetic Industrial Acidic ingredient for denture cleaner/toothpaste De-icer Antidote Engineering plastics and epoxy curing Calcium-succinate is anticarcinogenic agents/hardeners Efferescent tablets Herbicides, fungicides, regulators of plantgrowth Intermediate for perfumes Intermediate for lacquers + photographic chemicals Pharmaceutical intermediates (sedatives, Plasticizer (replaces phtalates, adipic acid) antiphlegm/-phogistics, antibacterial, disinfectant) Polymers Preservative for toiletries Solvents, lubricants Removes fish odour Surface cleaning agent Used in the preparation of vitamin A (metal-/electronic-/semiconductor-industry) Succinic Food Acid Other Bread-softening agent Flavour-enhancer Flavouring agent and acidic seasoning in beverages/food Microencapsulation of flavouring oils Preservative (chicken, dog food) Protein gelatinisation and in dry gelatine desserts/cake flavourings Used in synthesis of modified starch Anodizing Aluminium Chemical metal plating, electroplating baths Coatings, inks, pigments (powder/radiation-curable coating, resins for water-based paint, dye intermediate, photocurable ink, toners) Fabric finish, dyeing aid for fibres Part of antismut-treatment for barley seeds Preservative for cut flowers Soil-chelating agent Author: Lars Krause, Florian Dietrich, Pia Skoczinski, Michael Carus, Pauline Ruiz, Lara Dammer, Achim Raschka, nova-Institut GmbH, Germany November 2020 This and other reports on the bio- and CO 2-based economy are available at Author: Doris de Guzman, Tecnon OrbiChem, United Kingdom Updated Executive Summary and Market Review May 2020 – Originally published February 2020 This and other reports on the bio- and CO 2-based economy are available at Authors: Achim Raschka, Pia Skoczinski, Raj Chinthapalli, Ángel Puente and Michael Carus, nova-Institut GmbH, Germany October 2019 This and other reports on the bio-based economy are available at Authors: Raj Chinthapalli, Ángel Puente, Pia Skoczinski, Achim Raschka, Michael Carus, nova-Institut GmbH, Germany October 2019 This and other reports on the bio-based economy are available at Standards and labels for bio-based products Bio-based polymers, a revolutionary change Comprehensive trend report on PHA, PLA, PUR/TPU, PA and polymers based on FDCA and SA: Latest developments, producers, drivers and lessons learnt Fff Bio-based polymers, a revolutionary change Market study on the consumption of biodegradable and compostable plastic products in Europe 2015 and 2020 A comprehensive market research report including consumption figures by polymer and application types as well as by geography, plus analyses of key players, relevant policies and legislation and a special feature on biodegradation and composting standards and labels Bestsellers Brand Views and Adoption of Bio-based Polymers Jan Ravenstijn March 2017 E-mail: Mobile: +31.6.2247.8593 Picture: Gehr Kunststoffwerk Disposable tableware Biowaste bags Carrier bags Rigid packaging Flexible packaging Authors: Lara Dammer, Michael Carus and Dr. Asta Partanen nova-Institut GmbH, Germany May 2017 This and other reports on the bio-based economy are available at Author: Jan Ravenstijn, Jan Ravenstijn Consulting, the Netherlands April 2017 This and other reports on the bio-based economy are available at Authors: Harald Kaeb (narocon, lead), Florence Aeschelmann, Lara Dammer, Michael Carus (nova-Institute) April 2016 This and other reports on the bio-based economy are available at Author: Dr. Harald Kaeb, narocon Innovation Consulting, Germany January 2016 This and other reports on the bio-based economy are available at bioplastics MAGAZINE [02/21] Vol. 16 27

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