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Issue 02/2020

  • Text
  • Use
  • Horticulture
  • Agriculture
  • Thermoforming
  • Packaging
  • Films
  • Biobased
  • Biodegradable
  • Products
  • Plastics
  • Materials
  • Packaging
  • Bioplastics
Highlights: Agri-/Horticulture Thermoforming Rigid Packaging Basics Land use (update)


Agriculture/Horticulture The bioplastic products will be evaluated with respect to their economic cost and environmental sustainability on a cradle-to-gate / cradle-to-grave basis using life cycle costing and consequential life-cycle methodologies. The proposed demonstrators will be developed under the industrially relevant conditions, at pilot-scale sites by utilising the industrially upscaled materials (Zelfo’s hop waste fiber and Tecno’s hop fibre reinforced PLA compounds, both derived from harvested hop waste biomass) to ensure that all development outcomes will be commercially relevant and applicable for the market uptake by the end of this project. In order to ensure the selection of the most economic pathway for the agro waste hop fibre engineering and post treatment of hop biomass with PLA residues for use in bioplastic demonstrators, the project will test a number of modification iterations and will integrate the best solution obtained into the whole waste-processing system. This will provide the basis for a robust techno-economic assessment of the value chain. The technical performance of the demonstration products (including bio twine, moulded insert trays and injected pots) will be compared against industry standards (such as commercially available engineering polymers, i.e PP and PE), as well as engineering materials (such as wood fibrereinforced synthetic polymers) to ensure they can compete on performance against virgin fossil-based counterparts. The products will be assessed for their end-of-life phase by using current and novel recycling methodologies, this will be in addition to aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation studies to determine the most suitable end-of-life treatment options. One of the important innovative characteristics of the BioTHOP project is a complete post-valorisation of the wasted hop biomass, from the evaluation of the nutritional added value of the hop waste liquor produced in the process of fiber engineering to the quality of the compost at the end of the on-site composting. In this way the hop-growers will be given the opportunity to decide how they want to redirect their side products after the harvesting process. In achieving these objectives, the BioTHOP project will overcome a number of industrial, social and environmental problems including: high levels of waste disposal to landfill, the food-vs-fuel/product debate, plastic pollution in the environment, sustainability of the FMCG sectors, especially in relation to large quantities of nonbiodegradable plastic packaging and horticulture commodities, the high cost of bioplastics currently released on the market, price fluctuations and global warming concerns linked to fossil energy usage. To realise the above aims, the following specific objectives in the two-fold strategic workflow will be met: 1. Pilot-line optimisation for fibre extraction & post treatment of hop biomass with PLA residues The novelty of the BioTHOP’s technological background is in upgrading and converting the wasted hop biomass into high quality fibres for reinforcement and binder applications. Zelfo Technology has developed a unique engineered fibre solution that are the result of several years of know-how development, resulting in a portfolio of patented systems. The ability to fractionate and valorise the residual agro wastes into value added feedstock for new transforming technologies is giving growers the possibility to turn a waste disposal cost into a potential revenue while contributing to circular economy principles. In this project, hop biomass will be converted into wet fibre crumbs and dried fibre fillers to suit the processability requirements of the pulp and injection moulding technologies. The various modification pathways will be characterised to impart the specific fibre properties including a high degree of defibrillation thus multiplying the binding capability of the material by a factor of several thousand. To complete the cascading approach of hop waste valorisation, the hop biomass after cones harvest mixed with PLA remnants will be down-cycled into organic compost with zero phytotoxicity admixtures to improve the soil fertility & plant seedling production. Monitoring of the compost quality will be additionally assessed throughout the chemical with basic parameters determination, such as the content of nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, calcium, sulphur and pest’s presence. 2. Two valorisation strategies for using waste hop fibres in industrial applications • biodegradable, compostable & recyclable hop fiber moulded packaging: Hop fibre insert trays for fragile item packaging will serve as the demonstrators of the pulp moulding transforming capabilities by converting the engineered hop fibre crumbs into new added value products. Material composition, mechanical performance, product design & process-ability characteristics, as well as the 3D pre-forming ability of the modified hop fiber mats will be assessed during the demonstration. • 100 % natural additivated biocomposite material for mass production processing: Rigid planting pots as a part of horticulture commodities, with proven biodegradability, compostability & recyclability properties will be designed as BioTHOP demonstrators. The final products will be manufactured from new bioplastic compounds based on engineered hop fibers and PLA matrices. Mechanical performance and fitfor-purpose technological outcome will be assessed during demonstration and constant monitoring on final products quality will be essential to prove its usability & functionality, tailored for the needs of end customers. The LIFE BioTHOP project spans from July 2019 to June 2022 and has received a co-founding grant from the European LIFE Programme (grant agreement n° LIFE18 ENV/SI/000056). It is additionally supported by the Ministry of the Environment and Spatial Planning of Republic Slovenia, 6 municipalities of Lower Savinja Valley and the Association of Slovenian Hop Growers. The contents of this paper do not reflect the opinion of the EU Institutions. | | | 34 bioplastics MAGAZINE [02/20] Vol. 15

4 3 2 1 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2024 All figures available at © 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% | 2017 PBS(X) PA PET PTT PBAT PHA Adipic acid (AA) 11-Aminoundecanoic acid (11-AA) 1,4-Butanediol (1,4-BDO) Dodecanedioic acid (DDDA) Epichlorohydrin (ECH) Ethylene Furan derivatives D-lactic acid (D-LA) L-lactic acid (L-LA) Lactide Monoethylene glycol (MEG) Monopropylene glycol (MPG) Naphtha 1,5-Pentametylenediamine (DN5) 1,3-Propanediol (1,3-PDO) Sebacic acid Succinic acid (SA) PLA © | 2020 PE Full study available at PVC EPDM PP PMMA PE Vinyl chloride Propylene Unsaturated polyester resins Methyl methacrylate PEF Polyurethanes MEG Building blocks Natural rubber Aniline Ethylene for UPR Cellulose acetate 2,5-FDCA Building blocks for polyurethanes Levulinic acid Lignin-based bolymers Naphthta Ethanol PET PFA 5-HMF/5-CMF FDME Waste oils Starch-containing Furfuryl alcohol polymer compounds Natural rubber Saccharose PTF Furfural Hemicellulose 1,3 Propanediol Lignocellulose NOPs Fructose PTT Terephthalic MPG acid Glycerol Starch ECH Plant oils p-Xylene SBR Fatty acids Castor oil 11-AA Glucose Isobutanol THF Sebacic Lysine PBT acid 1,4-Butanediol Succinic acid DDDA PBAT Caprolactame Adipic acid HMDA DN5 Sorbitol 3-HP Lactic acid Itaconic Acrylic PBS(x) acid acid Isosorbide PA Lactide Superabsorbent polymers Epoxy resins ABS PHA APC PLA OH OH O HO diphenolic acid O H 2N OH O 5-aminolevulinic acid O O OH O O levulinate ketal O OR O levulinic ester O O ɣ-valerolactone O HO OH O succinic acid O 5-methyl-2-pyrrolidone ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Market and Trend Reports Institute for Ecology and Innovation UPDATE 2020 DATA FOR 2019 NEW UPDATE 2019 Commercialisation updates on bio-based building blocks Bio-based Building Blocks and Polymers – Global Capacities, Production and Trends 2019–2024 Levulinic acid – A versatile platform chemical for a variety of market applications Succinic acid – From a promising building block to a slow seller Polymers Global market dynamics, demand/supply, trends and market potential What will a realistic future market look like? Production capacities (million tonnes) Bio-based building blocks Evolution of worldwide production capacities from 2011 to 2024 O OH O levulinic acid H N Pharmaceutical/Cosmetic Industrial Acidic ingredient for denture cleaner/toothpaste De-icer Antidote Engineering plastics and epoxy curing Calcium-succinate is anticarcinogenic agents/hardeners Efferescent tablets Herbicides, fungicides, regulators of plantgrowth Intermediate for perfumes Intermediate for lacquers + photographic chemicals Pharmaceutical intermediates (sedatives, Plasticizer (replaces phtalates, adipic acid) antiphlegm/-phogistics, antibacterial, disinfectant) Polymers Preservative for toiletries Solvents, lubricants Removes fish odour Surface cleaning agent Used in the preparation of vitamin A (metal-/electronic-/semiconductor-industry) Succinic Food Acid Other Bread-softening agent Flavour-enhancer Flavouring agent and acidic seasoning in beverages/food Microencapsulation of flavouring oils Preservative (chicken, dog food) Protein gelatinisation and in dry gelatine desserts/cake flavourings Used in synthesis of modified starch Anodizing Aluminium Chemical metal plating, electroplating baths Coatings, inks, pigments (powder/radiation-curable coating, resins for water-based paint, dye intermediate, photocurable ink, toners) Fabric finish, dyeing aid for fibres Part of antismut-treatment for barley seeds Preservative for cut flowers Soil-chelating agent Authors: Doris de Guzman, Tecnon OrbiChem, United Kingdom February 2020 This and other reports on the bio- and CO 2-based economy are available at Authors: Pia Skoczinski, Raj Chinthapalli, Michael Carus, Wolfgang Baltus, Doris de Guzman, Harald Käb, Achim Raschka, Jan Ravenstijn January 2020 This and other reports on the bio- and CO 2- based economy are available at Authors: Achim Raschka, Pia Skoczinski, Raj Chinthapalli, Ángel Puente and Michael Carus, nova-Institut GmbH, Germany October 2019 This and other reports on the bio-based economy are available at Authors: Raj Chinthapalli, Ángel Puente, Pia Skoczinski, Achim Raschka, Michael Carus, nova-Institut GmbH, Germany October 2019 This and other reports on the bio-based economy are available at THE BEST MARKET REPORTS AVAILABLE Bio- and CO 2 -based Polymers & Building Blocks Carbon dioxide (CO 2) as chemical feedstock for polymers – technologies, polymers, developers and producers Standards and labels for bio-based products Bio-based polymers, a revolutionary change Policies impacting bio-based plastics market development Comprehensive trend report on PHA, PLA, PUR/TPU, PA and polymers based on FDCA and SA: Latest developments, producers, drivers and lessons learnt and plastic bags legislation in Europe Fff Bio-based polymers, a revolutionary change Jan Ravenstijn March 2017 Picture: Gehr Kunststoffwerk E-mail: Mobile: +31.6.2247.8593 Authors: Achim Raschka, Pia Skoczinski, Jan Ravenstijn and Michael Carus, nova-Institut GmbH, Germany February 2019 This and other reports on the bio-based economy are available at Authors: Lara Dammer, Michael Carus and Dr. Asta Partanen nova-Institut GmbH, Germany May 2017 This and other reports on the bio-based economy are available at Author: Jan Ravenstijn, Jan Ravenstijn Consulting, the Netherlands April 2017 This and other reports on the bio-based economy are available at Authors: Dirk Carrez, Clever Consult, Belgium Jim Philp, OECD, France Dr. Harald Kaeb, narocon Innovation Consulting, Germany Lara Dammer & Michael Carus, nova-Institute, Germany March 2017 This and other reports on the bio-based economy are available at Asian markets for bio-based chemical building blocks and polymers Share of Asian production capacity on global production by polymer in 2016 Market study on the consumption of biodegradable and compostable plastic products in Europe 2015 and 2020 A comprehensive market research report including consumption figures by polymer and application types as well as by geography, plus analyses of key players, relevant policies and legislation and a special feature on biodegradation and composting standards and labels Brand Views and Adoption of Bio-based Polymers Wood-Plastic Composites (WPC) and Natural Fibre Composites (NFC) European and Global Markets 2012 and Future Trends in Automotive and Construction Bestsellers APC – cyclic Starch Blends Disposable tableware Biowaste bags Carrier bags Rigid packaging Flexible packaging Author: Wolfgang Baltus, Wobalt Expedition Consultancy, Thailand This and other reports on the bio-based economy are available at Authors: Harald Kaeb (narocon, lead), Florence Aeschelmann, Lara Dammer, Michael Carus (nova-Institute) April 2016 This and other reports on the bio-based economy are available at Author: Dr. Harald Kaeb, narocon Innovation Consulting, Germany January 2016 This and other reports on the bio-based economy are available at Authors: Michael Carus, Dr. Asta Eder, Lara Dammer, Dr. Hans Korte, Lena Scholz, Roland Essel, Elke Breitmayer, Martha Barthn This and other reports on the bio-based economy are available at bioplastics MAGAZINE [02/20] Vol. 15 35

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