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Issue 02/2019

  • Text
  • Bioplastics
  • Packaging
  • Biobased
  • Plastics
  • Products
  • Materials
  • Biodegradable
  • Sustainable
  • Renewable
  • Compostable
Highlights: Thermoforming Building & Construction Basics: Biobased Packaging

Natural Rubber ©

Natural Rubber © -Institut.eu | 2018 Starch-based Polymers Lignin-based Polymers Cellulose-based Polymers © PBAT PET-like PU APC PTT PLA PU PA PTF PHA -Institut.eu | 2017 PMMA HDMA DN5 PVC Isosorbide 1,3 Propanediol Caprolactam UPR PP Propylene Vinyl Chloride Ethylene Sorbitol Lysine MPG Epoxy resins Epichlorohydrin EPDM Ethanol Glucose PE MEG Terephthalic acid Isobutanol PET p-Xylene Starch Saccharose Fructose Lignocellulose Natural Rubber Plant oils Hemicellulose Glycerol PU Fatty acids NOPs Polyols PU PU LCDA THF PBT 1,4-Butanediol Succinic acid 3-HP 5-HMF/ 5-CMF Aniline Furfural PA SBR Acrylic acid 2,5-FDCA/ FDME PU PFA PU PTF ABS PHA Full study available at www.bio-based.eu/reports Full study available at www.bio-based.eu/reports PEF PBS(X) © -Institut.eu | 2017 Full study available at www.bio-based.eu/markets ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ 7 th Bio-based Polymers & Building Blocks The best market reports available Commercialisation updates on bio-based building blocks 7 th 1 Data Data for for 2018 2018 UPDATE 2019 UPDATE 2019 Bio-based Building Blocks Bio-based Building Blocks and Polymers – Global Capacities and Polymers – Global Capacities and Trends 2018-2023 and Trends 2017-2022 Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) as chemical feedstock for polymers – technologies, polymers, developers and producers Succinic acid: New bio-based building block with a huge market and environmental potential? Million Tonnes 6 5 4 3 2 1 2011 Bio-based polymers: Evolution of worldwide production capacities from 2011 to 2022 Lactic acid Adipic acid Methyl Metacrylate Itaconic acid Furfuryl alcohol Levulinic acid 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 Dedicated Drop-in Smart Drop-in Superabsorbent Polymers Pharmaceutical/Cosmetic Acidic ingredient for denture cleaner/toothpaste Antidote Calcium-succinate is anticarcinogenic Efferescent tablets Intermediate for perfumes Pharmaceutical intermediates (sedatives, antiphlegm/-phogistics, antibacterial, disinfectant) Preservative for toiletries Removes fish odour Used in the preparation of vitamin A Food Bread-softening agent Flavour-enhancer Flavouring agent and acidic seasoning in beverages/food Microencapsulation of flavouring oils Preservative (chicken, dog food) Protein gelatinisation and in dry gelatine desserts/cake flavourings Used in synthesis of modified starch Succinic Acid Industrial De-icer Engineering plastics and epoxy curing agents/hardeners Herbicides, fungicides, regulators of plantgrowth Intermediate for lacquers + photographic chemicals Plasticizer (replaces phtalates, adipic acid) Polymers Solvents, lubricants Surface cleaning agent (metal-/electronic-/semiconductor-industry) Other Anodizing Aluminium Chemical metal plating, electroplating baths Coatings, inks, pigments (powder/radiation-curable coating, resins for water-based paint, dye intermediate, photocurable ink, toners) Fabric finish, dyeing aid for fibres Part of antismut-treatment for barley seeds Preservative for cut flowers Soil-chelating agent Authors: Raj Authors: Chinthapalli, Raj Chinthapalli, Dr. Pia Skoczinski, Michael Carus, Michael Wolfgang Carus, Wolfgang Baltus, Baltus, Doris Doris de de Guzman, Harald Harald Käb, Käb, Achim Achim Raschka, Jan Jan Ravenstijn, April 2018 2019 This and other reports on the bio-based economy are available at This www.bio-based.eu/reports and other on the bio-based economy are available at www.bio-based.eu/reports Authors: Achim Raschka, Dr. Pia Skoczinski, Jan Ravenstijn and Michael Carus nova-Institut GmbH, Germany February 2019 This and other reports on the bio-based economy are available at www.bio-based.eu/reports Authors: Raj Chinthapalli, Dr. Pia Skoczinski, Achim Raschka, Michael Carus, nova-Institut GmbH, Germany Update March 2019 This and other reports on the bio-based economy are available at www.bio-based.eu/reports Standards and labels for bio-based products Bio-based polymers, a revolutionary change Comprehensive trend report on PHA, PLA, PUR/TPU, PA and polymers based on FDCA and SA: Latest developments, producers, drivers and lessons learnt million t/a Selected bio-based building blocks: Evolution of worldwide production capacities from 2011 to 2021 3,5 actual data forecast 3 2,5 Bio-based polymers, a revolutionary change 2 1,5 Jan Ravenstijn 2017 1 0,5 Picture: Gehr Kunststoffwerk 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 L-LA Epichlorohydrin MEG Ethylene Sebacic acid 1,3-PDO MPG Lactide E-mail: j.ravenstijn@kpnmail.nl Succinic acid 1,4-BDO 2,5-FDCA D-LA 11-Aminoundecanoic acid DDDA Adipic acid Mobile: +31.6.2247.8593 Author: Doris de Guzman, Tecnon OrbiChem, United Kingdom July 2017 This and other reports on the bio-based economy are available at www.bio-based.eu/reports Authors: Lara Dammer, Michael Carus and Dr. Asta Partanen nova-Institut GmbH, Germany May 2017 This and other reports on the bio-based economy are available at www.bio-based.eu/reports Author: Jan Ravenstijn, Jan Ravenstijn Consulting, the Netherlands April 2017 This and other reports on the bio-based economy are available at www.bio-based.eu/reports Policies impacting bio-based plastics market development and plastic bags legislation in Europe Asian markets for bio-based chemical building blocks and polymers Market study on the consumption of biodegradable and compostable plastic products in Europe 2015 and 2020 Share of Asian production capacity on global production by polymer in 2016 100% A comprehensive market research report including consumption figures by polymer and application types as well as by geography, plus analyses of key players, relevant policies and legislation and a special feature on biodegradation and composting standards and labels 80% 60% Bestsellers 40% 20% 0% PBS(X) APC – cyclic PA PET PTT PBAT Starch PHA PLA PE Blends Disposable tableware Biowaste bags Carrier bags Rigid packaging Flexible packaging Authors: Dirk Carrez, Clever Consult, Belgium Jim Philp, OECD, France Dr. Harald Kaeb, narocon Innovation Consulting, Germany Lara Dammer & Michael Carus, nova-Institute, Germany March 2017 This and other reports on the bio-based economy are available at www.bio-based.eu/reports Author: Wolfgang Baltus, Wobalt Expedition Consultancy, Thailand This and other reports on the bio-based economy are available at www.bio-based.eu/reports Authors: Harald Kaeb (narocon, lead), Florence Aeschelmann, Lara Dammer, Michael Carus (nova-Institute) April 2016 The full market study (more than 300 slides, 3,500€) is available at bio-based.eu/top-downloads. www.bio-based.eu/reports 1 42 bioplastics MAGAZINE [02/19] Vol. 14

Opinion No solution for pollution? Will PLA solve the plastic pollution problem in island countries like Singapore? Global concern over single-use plastics escalated recently after the European parliament - in a bid to stop pollution of the oceans - voted in October 2018 to ban the use of these plastics in products such as straws and cutlery [1]. In southeast Asia, Bee Yin Yeo, Malaysia’s new science and environmental minister, was selected as one of Nature’s top 10 “people who mattered” in 2018 , in acknowledgment of her strong stance against plastics pollution [2]. A heated discussion about the very low plastics recycling rate (6% according to the latest data released [3]) was unleashed in newspapers in Singapore; and a new non-profit and nongovernmental organisation (Zero Waste SG) [4] was established in 2018 dedicated to helping Singapore eliminate waste, including plastics waste, and to accelerate the shift towards zero waste and the circular economy. Unsurprisingly, the idea of biodegradable plastics, as an alternative to single-use plastics, has become a highly popular one, not only in scientific research, but also among policymakers. PLA is widely regarded as the most promising, because of its unique properties and relatively low price. PLA accounted for 24% of the global production capacity for biodegradable polymers, just after starch blends (44%). Yet while PLA has indeed passed the standardized biodegradation tests required by ASTM and OECD, the fact that its biodegradation rates are highly dependent on humidity, temperature as well as concentrations of microorganisms was largely ignored. Recently, Frederik R. Wurm, head of the research group “Functional Polymers” at Germany’s Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, examined the impact of biodegradable polymers, including PLA, on the environment and on society. In his critical review [5], he pointed out that PLA is non-degradable in water or in seawater. I fully agree with his view that it is our duty as scientists to take part in the general discussion and to inform the public in a responsible and honest way about the possibilities and limitations of biodegradable plastics. To that end, I extracted the information about PLA degradation from this review and conducted a search on Google Scholar for the term of “biodegradation of PLA” or “biodegradation in seawater”, in order to ascertain whether PLA can solve the problem of plastics pollution in island countries like Singapore (with Singapore as an example for analysis). End up environment of plastics waste in Singapore According to local media reports [6,7], only 6 % of the locally produced plastic waste is currently recycled. The remainder, for the most part, is incinerated. However, By: Liuqun Gu Department of Biomedical Engineering Jinan University Guangzhou, China whatever is left is either exported or is leaked into the environment, ending up in the ocean and causing plastic waste pollution. Hence it is easy to conclude that the problem of plastic pollution in Singapore is the plastic polluting the ocean. If the problem of ocean waste plastic is to be solved, the plastics used in the future must be biodegradable in seawater and marine environment. PLA was shown to degrade quickly under industrial composting conditions and was degradable at a slower rate in soil conditions or landfill. However, it is not degradable at all in fresh water or seawater (in test conditions varying from several month to one year) according to three academic studies [8,9,10] and a research report by the state of California [11]. Although the artificial seawater used in a few of the tests might not be exactly the same as the seawater near Singapore or other island countries, the inertness of PLA is still a point that is well worth special consideration. In summary, replacing single-use commodity plastics with PLA is unlikely to solve the problem of waste plastic pollution in island countries like Singapore, because PLA will not degrade in fresh water or seawater. In addition, the label of “biodegradable” or “disposable” might encourage irresponsible disposal by members of the public, as most people believe that “bioplastics” are biodegradable under any conditions. linkedin.com/in/liuqun-gu-b1401472/ References [1] Single-use plastics ban approved by European Parliament, BBC news on 24 Oct. 2018; www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-45965605 [2] Bee Yin Yeo: force for the environment; www.nature.com/immersive/d41586- 017- 07763-y/index.html [3] www.nea.gov.sg/our-services/waste-management/waste-statistics-and-overallrecycling [4] http://www.zerowastesg.com/ [5] T. P. Haider, C. Volker, J. Kramm, K. Landfester, and F. R. Wurm, Plastics of the Future? The Impact of Biodegradable Polymers on the Environment and on Society Angew., Chem. Int. Ed. 2019, 58, 50–62. [6] Have our recycling efforts in Singapore gone to waste? https://thepeakmagazine.com.sg/lifestyle/have-our-recycling-efforts-insingapore-gone- to-waste/. [7] Plastics still pose a problem for Singapore; www.businesstimes.com.sg/ consumer/plastics-still-pose-a-problem-for-singapore [8] J. Greene, Biodegradation of Biodegradable and Compostable Plastics under Industrial Compost, Marine and Anaerobic Digestion, SciEnvironm, 2018, 1, 13- 18. [9] A. R. Bagheri, C. Laforsch, A. Greiner, and S. Agarwal, Fate of So-Called Biodegradable Polymers in Seawater and Freshwater, Global Challenges, 2017, 1, 1700048. [10] R. T. Martin, L. P. Camargo and S. A. Miller, Marine-degradable polylactic acid, Green Chem. 2014, 16, 1768. [11] Report Topic: PLA and PHA Biodegradation in the Marine Environment by Department of Resources Recycling and Recovery, State of California, March 5, 2012. bioplastics MAGAZINE [02/19] Vol. 14 43

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