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Issue 02/2018

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© | 2016 Full study available at © ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ | 2017 ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Full study available at © | 2017 Full study available at Automotive Bio-based Polymers & Building Blocks The best market reports available Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) as chemical feedstock for polymers – technologies, polymers, developers and producers Succinic acid: New bio-based building block with a huge market and environmental potential? Commercialisation updates on bio-based building blocks Pharmaceutical/Cosmetic Acidic ingredient for denture cleaner/toothpaste Antidote Calcium-succinate is anticarcinogenic Efferescent tablets Intermediate for perfumes Pharmaceutical intermediates (sedatives, antiphlegm/-phogistics, antibacterial, disinfectant) Preservative for toiletries Removes fish odour Used in the preparation of vitamin A Food Bread-softening agent Flavour-enhancer Flavouring agent and acidic seasoning in beverages/food Microencapsulation of flavouring oils Preservative (chicken, dog food) Protein gelatinisation and in dry gelatine desserts/cake flavourings Used in synthesis of modified starch Succinic Acid Industrial De-icer Engineering plastics and epoxy curing agents/hardeners Herbicides, fungicides, regulators of plantgrowth Intermediate for lacquers + photographic chemicals Plasticizer (replaces phtalates, adipic acid) Polymers Solvents, lubricants Surface cleaning agent (metal-/electronic-/semiconductor-industry) Other Anodizing Aluminium Chemical metal plating, electroplating baths Coatings, inks, pigments (powder/radiation-curable coating, resins for water-based paint, dye intermediate, photocurable ink, toners) Fabric finish, dyeing aid for fibres Part of antismut-treatment for barley seeds Preservative for cut flowers Soil-chelating agent million t/a Selected bio-based building blocks: Evolution of worldwide production capacities from 2011 to 2021 3,5 actual data forecast 3 2,5 2 1,5 1 0,5 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 Sebacic L-LA Epichlorohydrin MEG Ethylene 1,3-PDO MPG acid Succinic 1,4-BDO 2,5-FDCA D-LA 11-Aminoundecanoic acid DDDA acid 2021 Lactide Adipic acid Authors: Achim Raschka, Barbara Dommermuth, Jan Ravenstijn and Michael Carus nova-Institut GmbH, Germany March 2018 This and other reports on the bio-based economy are available at Authors: Raj Chinthapalli, Kerstin Iffland, Florence Aeschelmann, Achim Raschka, Michael Carus, nova-Institut GmbH, Germany February 2018 This and other reports on the bio-based economy are available at Author: Doris de Guzman, Tecnon OrbiChem, United Kingdom July 2017 This and other reports on the bio-based economy are available at Standards and labels for bio-based products Bio-based polymers, a revolutionary change Comprehensive trend report on PHA, PLA, PUR/TPU, PA and polymers based on FDCA and SA: Latest developments, producers, drivers and lessons learnt Policies impacting bio-based plastics market development and plastic bags legislation in Europe Bio-based polymers, a revolutionary change Jan Ravenstijn 2017 Picture: Gehr Kunststoffwerk E-mail: Mobile: +31.6.2247.8593 Authors: Lara Dammer, Michael Carus and Dr. Asta Partanen nova-Institut GmbH, Germany May 2017 This and other reports on the bio-based economy are available at Author: Jan Ravenstijn, Jan Ravenstijn Consulting, the Netherlands April 2017 This and other reports on the bio-based economy are available at Authors: Dirk Carrez, Clever Consult, Belgium Jim Philp, OECD, France Dr. Harald Kaeb, narocon Innovation Consulting, Germany Lara Dammer & Michael Carus, nova-Institute, Germany March 2017 This and other reports on the bio-based economy are available at Bio-based Building Blocks and Polymers Global Capacities and Trends 2016 – 2021 Asian markets for bio-based chemical building blocks and polymers Market study on the consumption of biodegradable and compostable plastic products in Europe 2015 and 2020 million t/a 10 Bio-based polymers: Evolution of worldwide production capacities from 2011 to 2021 actual data 2% of total polymer capacity, €13 billion turnover Share of Asian production capacity on global production by polymer in 2016 100% A comprehensive market research report including consumption figures by polymer and application types as well as by geography, plus analyses of key players, relevant policies and legislation and a special feature on biodegradation and composting standards and labels 80% 5 60% Bestsellers 40% 20% 0 2011 2012 PUR PA 2013 2014 2015 2016 Epoxies PET CA PBS PBAT PHA 2017 Starch Blends EPDM 2018 PLA APC 2019 2020 2021 PE PTT PEF 0% PBS(X) APC – cyclic PA PET PTT PBAT Starch Blends PHA PLA PE Disposable tableware Biowaste bags Carrier bags Rigid packaging Flexible packaging Authors: Florence Aeschelmann (nova-Institute), Michael Carus (nova-institute) and ten renowned international experts February 2017 This is the short version of the market study (249 pages, € 2,000). Both are available at Author: Wolfgang Baltus, Wobalt Expedition Consultancy, Thailand This and other reports on the bio-based economy are available at Authors: Harald Kaeb (narocon, lead), Florence Aeschelmann, Lara Dammer, Michael Carus (nova-Institute) April 2016 The full market study (more than 300 slides, 3,500€) is available at 32 bioplastics MAGAZINE [02/18] Vol. 13

Materials The virtues and challenges of the PHA-platform By: Jan Ravenstijn Meerssen, The Netherlands About 10 years ago the first products of the PHA-platform have been introduced to the plastics market. The initial products were P3HB, P3HB4HB copolymers and PHBV copolymers. These initial PHA-products were biodegradable under many conditions (soil, water, aerobic, anaerobic, etc.) when subjected to bacteria or fungi, were 100 % based on renewable feedstock and were claimed to be a potential replacement for big volume fossil-based polymers like PE, PP, PS and PET in a variety of mostly onetime-use applications. A few years later also PHA-polymers with a longer side chains (PHBH, PHBO and PHBD) were introduced to the market. After a couple of years the compounders also managed to develop compounds containing PHA-products to replace ABS and PC/ABS compounds for durable applications like design-chairs and light switch covers (see photos). However, at the start there had been some major challenges with the initial products of the PHA-platform: • The market price was often 3 to 4 times the price of the products they intended to replace; • Very slow nucleation when cooling down the polymer melt resulted in long production cycle times; • Starting molecular chain scission at melt temperatures of 160°C resulting in a small operating window; • Product smell and batch-to-batch consistency was often below par; These matters resulted in a troublesome image for PHA at compounders and converters. In the meantime several companies developing PHA-polymers have developed remedies for aforementioned challenges, albeit that there is still some work left to be done. Since the beginning of the previous century there are about a dozen important lessons the global polymer industry has learnt or should have learnt when developing and introducing a new polymer for the market. Nevertheless the introduction of polymers from the new PHA-platform did not always take those lessons of the past into account during the last 10-15 years, significantly delaying this platform’s manifestation and growth. On top of that many players in the compounding, conversion and OEM parts of the value chain have no clear picture of what the PHA-platform is about and that it consists of many very different polymers, which led to some generalized misunderstandings. To that effect the PHAplatform could be compared to the PA-platform, since there are also many very different polyamides on the market. A nylon-6 manufacturer would not dream of going to the market advertising his PA, but would always be specific to mention that it is PA-6. Simply because it is a completely different product from PA-4.6 as an example. So why do so many (not all) PHA-polymer developers think that the market would be foolish enough to accept a polymer simply because it is a member of the PHAfamily, without understanding the details? After all, P3HB (polyhydroxybutyrate) is a completely different thing compared to PHBO, certainly when the PHBO contains 15 % of the octanoate moiety. Also, semi-crystalline PHA products are used for entirely different applications compared to amorphous PHA products. Of course the players in the value chain beyond the polymer manufacturers don’t need to be bothered with molecular formulas and topologies, but they need to understand the differences between the various PHA- bioplastics MAGAZINE [02/18] Vol. 13 33

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