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Issue 01/2023

  • Text
  • Automotive
  • Toys
  • Wwwbioplasticsmagazinecom
  • Editorial
  • Engineering
  • Biobased
  • Carbon
  • Sustainable
  • Materials
  • Recycling
  • Plastics
  • Germany
  • Bioplastics
Highlights: Toys Automotive Basics: Amorphous PHA Digital product passports


INITIATIVE RENEWABLE CARBON Policy action promoting sustainably sourced biobased plastics is needed now By 2050, the EU aims to be the first climate-neutral continent. Ambitious climate change reduction targets have been set for 2030 and the 2020 Circular Economy Action Plan outlines key target policy areas to achieve a sustainable, carbon-neutral, and circular economy in Europe. More than any other material, plastics have become a focal point for EU policy action, triggered by low recycling rates, plastic pollution, and marine littering. The European Commission’s ambitious objective to have at least 20 % of the carbon used in chemical and plastic products come from sustainable, non-fossil sources by 2030 supports this drive towards a circular plastics economy. However, an important part of the plastics circularity discussion has been overlooked in legislation. 98 % of the European plastics production derives from fossil fuels, and while reuse and recycling targets are crucial to supporting the shift towards a sustainable plastics economy, there is a lack of focus on supporting the shift away from the plastic sector’s dependence on virgin fossil resources. The European Commission’s recent proposal on the Packaging and Packaging Waste Regulation is a case in point. It sets out requirements for recycled content targets for plastics but omits to take the opportunity to legally mandate complementary biobased content targets. This is despite the fact that packaging makes up almost 40 % of all plastics consumption in the EU. The targets set in the proposal leave a third of all plastic packaging and half of contact-sensitive packaging still fossil-based by 2040. Braskem believes that further progress towards climate neutrality in the sector can and should be taken by adding biobased content targets on top of the recycled content targets. It will be crucial that these biobased plastics are drop-in solutions that are fully recyclable within existing recycling streams. Furthermore, it needs to be recognised that in order to reach the necessary scale of production both first – and second-generation biobased plastics have a role to play. Biobased plastics from cultivated crops currently consume less than 0.04 % of global biomass demand. As a comparison, about 2 % of the worldwide biomass demand is used for biofuels, 16 % for bioenergy and 10 % for materials [1]. Rather than focusing on the feedstock being first or second generation, attention should be on the development of solid and stringent sustainability criteria for all biobased plastics. This determines if the feedstock is sustainable or not. It is better to use first generation feedstock from a sustainable source than waste from a non or less sustainable source. For all biobased feedstock, first or second generation, such sustainability requirements should include the protection of biodiversity and ecosystems, prevent air, soil and water pollution, promote a positive social impact and finally, follow the biomass cascading principle putting food security and affordability above other uses. Directional guidance and a first blueprint for what should be included when developing these criteria can be found in the EU’s Renewable Energy Directive. Braskem urges the European Parliament and the Member States to include a 10 % separate target for biobased content in the Packaging and Packaging Waste Regulation. This would give much-needed legal certainty for industry investments as well as recognition that in order to achieve a truly circular economy for plastics sustainably sourced biobased plastics have a role to play. [1] Biobased plastics sustainable sourcing and content. (European Commission report, 2022) By: Katarina Molin Head of EU External Affairs & Advocacy Braskem Europe Rotterdam, Netherlands 10 bioplastics MAGAZINE [01/23] Vol. 18

Mechanical Recycling Extrusion Physical-Chemical Recycling available at Dissolution Physical Recycling Enzymolysis Biochemical Recycling Plastic Product End of Life Plastic Waste Collection Separation Different Waste Qualities Solvolysis Chemical Recycling Monomers Depolymerisation Thermochemical Recycling Pyrolysis Thermochemical Recycling Incineration CO2 Utilisation (CCU) Gasification Thermochemical Recycling CO2 © | 2022 PVC EPDM PP PMMA PE Vinyl chloride Propylene Unsaturated polyester resins Methyl methacrylate PEF Polyurethanes MEG Building blocks Natural rubber Aniline Ethylene for UPR Cellulose-based 2,5-FDCA polymers Building blocks for polyurethanes Levulinic acid Lignin-based polymers Naphtha Ethanol PET PFA 5-HMF/5-CMF FDME Furfuryl alcohol Waste oils Casein polymers Furfural Natural rubber Saccharose PTF Starch-containing Hemicellulose Lignocellulose 1,3 Propanediol polymer compounds Casein Fructose PTT Terephthalic Non-edible milk acid MPG NOPs Starch ECH Glycerol p-Xylene SBR Plant oils Fatty acids Castor oil 11-AA Glucose Isobutanol THF Sebacic Lysine PBT acid 1,4-Butanediol Succinic acid DDDA PBAT Caprolactame Adipic acid HMDA DN5 Sorbitol 3-HP Lactic acid Itaconic Acrylic PBS(x) acid acid Isosorbide PA Lactide Superabsorbent polymers Epoxy resins ABS PHA APC PLA available at O OH HO OH HO OH O OH HO OH O OH O OH © | 2021 All figures available at Adipic acid (AA) 11-Aminoundecanoic acid (11-AA) 1,4-Butanediol (1,4-BDO) Dodecanedioic acid (DDDA) Epichlorohydrin (ECH) Ethylene Furan derivatives D-lactic acid (D-LA) L-lactic acid (L-LA) Lactide Monoethylene glycol (MEG) Monopropylene glycol (MPG) Naphtha 1,5-Pentametylenediamine (DN5) 1,3-Propanediol (1,3-PDO) Sebacic acid Succinic acid (SA) © | 2020 fossil available at Refining Polymerisation Formulation Processing Use renewable Depolymerisation Solvolysis Thermal depolymerisation Enzymolysis Purification Dissolution Recycling Conversion Pyrolysis Gasification allocated Recovery Recovery Recovery conventional © | 2021 © | 2020 nova Market and Trend Reports on Renewable Carbon The Best Available on Bio- and CO2-based Polymers & Building Blocks and Chemical Recycling INITIATIVE Mapping of advanced recycling technologies for plastics waste Providers, technologies, and partnerships Diversity of Advanced Recycling Mimicking Nature – The PHA Industry Landscape Latest trends and 28 producer profiles Bio-based Naphtha and Mass Balance Approach Status & Outlook, Standards & Certification Schemes Principle of Mass Balance Approach RENEWABLE CARBON Feedstock Process Products Plastics Composites Plastics/ Syngas Polymers Monomers Monomers Naphtha Use of renewable feedstock in very first steps of chemical production (e.g. steam cracker) Utilisation of existing integrated production for all production steps Allocation of the renewable share to selected products Authors: Lars Krause, Michael Carus, Achim Raschka and Nico Plum (all nova-Institute) June 2022 This and other reports on renewable carbon are available at Author: Jan Ravenstijn March 2022 This and other reports on renewable carbon are available at Authors: Michael Carus, Doris de Guzman and Harald Käb March 2021 This and other reports on renewable carbon are available at Bio-based Building Blocks and Polymers – Global Capacities, Production and Trends 2020 – 2025 Polymers Carbon Dioxide (CO 2) as Chemical Feedstock for Polymers Technologies, Polymers, Developers and Producers Chemical recycling – Status, Trends and Challenges Technologies, Sustainability, Policy and Key Players Building Blocks Plastic recycling and recovery routes Intermediates Feedstocks Primary recycling (mechanical) Virgin Feedstock Monomer Polymer Plastic Product Product (end-of-use) Landfill Renewable Feedstock Secondary recycling (mechanical) Tertiary recycling (chemical) Quaternary recycling (energy recovery) Secondary valuable materials CO 2 capture Energy Chemicals Fuels Others Authors: Pia Skoczinski, Michael Carus, Doris de Guzman, Harald Käb, Raj Chinthapalli, Jan Ravenstijn, Wolfgang Baltus and Achim Raschka January 2021 This and other reports on renewable carbon are available at Authors: Pauline Ruiz, Achim Raschka, Pia Skoczinski, Jan Ravenstijn and Michael Carus, nova-Institut GmbH, Germany January 2021 This and other reports on renewable carbon are available at Author: Lars Krause, Florian Dietrich, Pia Skoczinski, Michael Carus, Pauline Ruiz, Lara Dammer, Achim Raschka, nova-Institut GmbH, Germany November 2020 This and other reports on the bio- and CO 2-based economy are available at Genetic engineering Production of Cannabinoids via Extraction, Chemical Synthesis and Especially Biotechnology Current Technologies, Potential & Drawbacks and Future Development Plant extraction Plant extraction Cannabinoids Chemical synthesis Biotechnological production Production capacities (million tonnes) Commercialisation updates on bio-based building blocks Bio-based building blocks Evolution of worldwide production capacities from 2011 to 2024 4 3 2 1 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2024 Levulinic acid – A versatile platform chemical for a variety of market applications Global market dynamics, demand/supply, trends and market potential HO OH diphenolic acid H 2N O OH O O OH 5-aminolevulinic acid O O levulinic acid O O ɣ-valerolactone OH HO O O succinic acid OH O O OH O O levulinate ketal O H N O 5-methyl-2-pyrrolidone OR O levulinic ester Authors: Pia Skoczinski, Franjo Grotenhermen, Bernhard Beitzke, Michael Carus and Achim Raschka January 2021 This and other reports on renewable carbon are available at Author: Doris de Guzman, Tecnon OrbiChem, United Kingdom Updated Executive Summary and Market Review May 2020 – Originally published February 2020 This and other reports on the bio- and CO 2-based economy are available at Authors: Achim Raschka, Pia Skoczinski, Raj Chinthapalli, Ángel Puente and Michael Carus, nova-Institut GmbH, Germany October 2019 This and other reports on the bio-based economy are available at bioplastics MAGAZINE [01/23] Vol. 18 11

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