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Issue 01/2021

  • Text
  • Products
  • Automotive
  • Packaging
  • Sustainable
  • Carbon
  • Plastics
  • Materials
  • Biobased
  • Foam
  • Bioplastics
Highlights: Automotive Foam Basics: Enzymes

Basics To enable

Basics To enable widespread uptake and full economic and environmental benefits, further research advances are needed: • Enzyme takes long reaction time to achieve high molecular weight biopolymers – To overcome this, an interdisciplinary approach to design and implement the best polymerisation route in the early stage of the process development. • Concepts from bioreaction engineering need to be applied to increase the scalability of enzyme catalysed reactions. • Recombinant high-expression enzymes in suitable microbial hosts will be needed to reduce enzyme costs. • Suitable immobilisation strategies need to be employed to ensure that enzyme catalysts can be recovered and recycled efficiently. • The development of recombinant enzymes with high catalytic efficiency or stability in chemo-enzymatic reaction systems will increase reaction yields and improve process economics. Despite limitations of enzyme-mediated biopolymer synthesis, there are a number of manufacturers, poised for commercial applications of biopolymers, especially in the cosmetic and medical fields. Higher value specialty biopolymers will be commercially produced in the near future via an enzyme catalysis route due to the rapid development in the biotechnology and enzymatic polymerisation techniques. However, the application of enzymes in the commercial manufacturing of biobased commodity polymers, engineering plastics, and highperformance polymers is in the arly stages of development and will require more work before realisation in the market. Leveraging enzyme technology available in the food, feed, and biorefinery sectors in the bioplastics and biomaterials production has the potential to solve many of the above challenges and change how materials of the future are made and recycled. References [1] N.N.; Enzymes, Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enzyme, accessed on 20 Jan 2021. [2] Singh, R. Kumar, M. Mittal, A. et al. (2016) Microbial enzymes: industrial progress in 21st century. 3 Biotech 6:174. [3] N.N.; Activation Energy; https://ib.bioninja.com.au/higher-level/topic-8- metabolism-cell/untitled-6/activation-energy.html accessed on 20 Jan 2021. [4] Li, G. Vaidya, A. Viswanathan, K. Cui, J. Xie, W. Gao, W. Gross, R.A. (2006) Rapid Regioselective oligomerization of L-Glutamic Acid Diethyl Ester Catalysed by Papain. Macromolecules 39:7915-7921. [5] Vaidya, A. Miller, E. Bohling, J. Gross, R.A. (2006) Immobilization of Candida antarctica Lipase B on macroporous resins: Effects of resin chemistry, reaction conditions and resin hydrophobicity. Polym prepr 47(2):247-248. [6] Vaidya, A. Xie, W. Gao, W. Miller, E. Bohling, J. Gross, R.A. (2006) Enzyme immobilization without a support: Candida antartica lipase B (CALB) Self-crosslinked aggregates. Polym prepr 47(2): 236-237. [7] Spinella, S. Ganesh, M. Lo Re, G. Zhang, S. Raquez, J.-M. Dubois, P. Gross, R. A. (2015) Enzymatic reactive extrusion: moving towards continuous enzyme-catalysed polyester polymerisation and processing. Green Chem 17:4146-4150. [8] Vaidya, A.A. Hussain, I. Gaugler, M. Smith, D.A. (2019) Synthesis of graft copolymers of chitosan-poly(caprolactone) by lipase catalysed reactive extrusion. Carbohydr Polym 217:98-109. www.scionresearch.com C M Y CM MY CY 23 – 24 March 2021 Online Event CMY K Organiser Contact Dominik Vogt Conference Manager +49 (0)2233 4814-49 dominik.vogt@nova-institut.de Leading Event on Carbon Capture & Utilisation • Strategy & Policy • Green Hydrogen Production • Carbon Capture Technologies • Carbon Utilisation (Power-to-X): Fuels for Transport and Aviation, Building Blocks, Bulk and Fine Chemicals, Advanced Technologies / Artificial Photosynthesis • Innovation Award “Best CO 2 Utilisation 2021“ • Vote for the Innovation Award Best CO 2 Utilisation • 2021! www.co2-chemistry.eu Innovation Award Sponsor Innovation Award Co-Organiser Silver Sponsor www.co2-chemistry.eu 42 bioplastics MAGAZINE [01/21] Vol. 16

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