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Issue 01/2020

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Highlights: Automotive Recycling Cover Story: Biobased Fur

Politics Analogy between

Politics Analogy between PHA materials and Vanillin GO!PHA White Paper – December 2019 By: Jan Ravenstijn Founding Member of GO!PHA Amsterdam, The Netherlands The purpose of this paper is to draw a parallel between legislation on calling “fermentative production of Vanillin as a flavour” and “PHA-products as polymers” natural. Vanillin is the primary component of the extract of the vanilla bean. It is known and used as food additive since the Middle Ages at least. In the beginning of this century a Swiss company developed a process to make pure vanillin by fermentation of sugars with genetically modified micro-organisms and applied for permission to call this product “natural”, because it was made from natural resources based on the natural process of fermentation. Both the European Union (EFSA and EC) and the USA (FDA) approved the “natural”-label for this product. As a consequence the biotechnological industry started to make and sell several other flavours and fragrances based on the same principle. Fermented vanillin is now used more often than natural vanilla extract as a flavouring agent in foods, beverages and pharmaceuticals. In Regulation No 1334/2008 of the European Parliament and of the European Council the following definition of “natural” is being used: “‘natural flavouring substance’ shall mean a flavouring substance obtained by appropriate physical, enzymatic or microbiological processes from material of vegetable, animal or microbiological origin either in the raw state or after processing for human consumption by one or more of the traditional food preparation processes listed in Annex II. Natural flavouring substances correspond to substances that are naturally present and have been identified in nature”. “Natural” according to the US FDA is described for flavours as (April 2019): “the essential oil, oleoresin, essence or extractive, protein hydrolysate, distillate, or any product of roasting, heating or enzymolysis, which contains the flavouring constituents derived from a spice, fruit or fruit juice, vegetable or vegetable juice, edible yeast, herb, bark, bud, root, leaf or similar plant material, meat, seafood, poultry, eggs, dairy products, or fermentation products thereof, whose significant function in food is flavouring rather than nutritional”. By analogy with that, polyhydroxyalkanoates or PHAs are a series of natural bio-benign materials that have appeared in nature for millions of years, similar to other natural materials like wood, other cellulose based products, proteins and starch. They are part of the metabolism of plants, animals and humans. However, the molecular weight of these PHA materials occurring in nature and made by fermentation is too low to use them for applications, where fossil-based polymers are used. Fermentation methods with either natural micro-organisms or with genetically modified microorganisms have been developed to make PHA materials from renewable resources in order to maintain the natural functionalities, but at higher molecular weights, so they can be used for construction applications like moulded or extruded parts. As such industrially fermented PHA in the world of polymers is analogous with industrially fermented Vanillin in the world of flavours. GO!PHA, the Global Organization for PHA is a member-driven, non-profit initiative to accelerate the development, commercialization and adoption of the PHA polymers across industries and product segments globally. GO!PHA provides a platform for advocacy in policy and legislation, technical and scientific knowledge development, market development and proliferation and communication and to facilitate joint development initiatives on matters of common interest. www.gopha.org Magnetic for Plastics www.plasticker.com • International Trade in Raw Materials, Machinery & Products Free of Charge. • Daily News from the Industrial Sector and the Plastics Markets. • Current Market Prices for Plastics. • Buyer’s Guide for Plastics & Additives, Machinery & Equipment, Subcontractors and Services. • Job Market for Specialists and Executive Staff in the Plastics Industry. Up-to-date • Fast • Professional 12 bioplastics MAGAZINE [01/20] Vol. 15

PVC EPDM PP PMMA PE Vinyl chloride Propylene Unsaturated polyester resins Methyl methacrylate PEF Polyurethanes MEG Building blocks Natural rubber Aniline Ethylene for UPR Cellulose acetate 2,5-FDCA Building blocks for polyurethanes Levulinic acid Lignin-based bolymers Naphthta Ethanol PET PFA 5-HMF/5-CMF FDME Waste oils Starch-containing Furfuryl alcohol polymer compounds Natural rubber Saccharose PTF Furfural Hemicellulose 1,3 Propanediol Lignocellulose NOPs Fructose PTT Terephthalic MPG acid Glycerol Starch ECH Plant oils p-Xylene SBR Fatty acids Castor oil 11-AA Glucose Isobutanol THF Sebacic Lysine PBT acid 1,4-Butanediol Succinic acid DDDA PBAT Caprolactame Adipic acid HMDA DN5 Sorbitol 3-HP Lactic acid Itaconic Acrylic PBS(x) acid acid Isosorbide PA Lactide Superabsorbent polymers Epoxy resins ABS PHA APC PLA PBAT PET-like PU APC PHA PTT PLA PU PA PTF Natural Rubber Starch-based Polymers Lignin-based Polymers Cellulose-based Polymers © 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% -Institut.eu | 2017 PBS(X) EPDM PE PET PP PBT PVC Propylene MEG Vinyl Chloride Terephthalic Ethylene acid PEF PMMA PU THF p-Xylene SBR Methyl Metacrylate Ethanol PBS(X) Isosorbide Isobutanol 1,4-Butanediol Sorbitol Glucose Succinic acid 1,3 Propanediol 3-HP Superabsorbent Polymers Acrylic acid Starch Saccharose Fructose Lactic acid Adipic acid Lignocellulose Itaconic ABS acid Natural Rubber Lysine HDMA Plant oils 5-HMF/ 5-CMF 2,5-FDCA/ PTF Hemicellulose FDME DN5 Levulinic Caprolactam Fatty acids Glycerol acid Aniline Furfural PU Furfuryl MPG alcohol PFA NOPs LCDA Epichlorohydrin Polyols UPR PA Epoxy resins PET PTT PU PU PBAT PU PA PHA PHA PLA PE Full study available at www.bio-based.eu/markets OH OH O HO diphenolic acid O H 2N OH O 5-aminolevulinic acid O O OH O O levulinate ketal O OR O levulinic ester O O ɣ-valerolactone O HO OH O succinic acid O 5-methyl-2-pyrrolidone ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Automotive Market and Trend Reports Institute for Ecology and Innovation DATA FOR 2019 NEW UPDATE 2019 UPDATE 2019 Bio-based Building Blocks and Polymers – Global Capacities, Production and Trends 2019–2024 Levulinic acid – A versatile platform chemical for a variety of market applications Succinic acid – From a promising building block to a slow seller Carbon dioxide (CO 2) as chemical feedstock for polymers – technologies, polymers, developers and producers Polymers Global market dynamics, demand/supply, trends and market potential What will a realistic future market look like? O OH O Pharmaceutical/Cosmetic Industrial Acidic ingredient for denture cleaner/toothpaste De-icer Antidote Engineering plastics and epoxy curing Calcium-succinate is anticarcinogenic agents/hardeners Efferescent tablets Herbicides, fungicides, regulators of plantgrowth Intermediate for perfumes Intermediate for lacquers + photographic chemicals Pharmaceutical intermediates (sedatives, Plasticizer (replaces phtalates, adipic acid) antiphlegm/-phogistics, antibacterial, disinfectant) Polymers Preservative for toiletries Solvents, lubricants Removes fish odour Surface cleaning agent Used in the preparation of vitamin A (metal-/electronic-/semiconductor-industry) Succinic Food Acid Other levulinic acid H N Bread-softening agent Flavour-enhancer Flavouring agent and acidic seasoning in beverages/food Microencapsulation of flavouring oils Preservative (chicken, dog food) Protein gelatinisation and in dry gelatine desserts/cake flavourings Used in synthesis of modified starch Anodizing Aluminium Chemical metal plating, electroplating baths Coatings, inks, pigments (powder/radiation-curable coating, resins for water-based paint, dye intermediate, photocurable ink, toners) Fabric finish, dyeing aid for fibres Part of antismut-treatment for barley seeds Preservative for cut flowers Soil-chelating agent Authors: Pia Skoczinski, Raj Chinthapalli, Michael Carus, Wolfgang Baltus, Doris de Guzman, Harald Käb, Achim Raschka, Jan Ravenstijn January 2020 This and other reports on the bio- and CO 2- based economy are available at www.bio-based.eu/reports Authors: Achim Raschka, Pia Skoczinski, Raj Chinthapalli, Ángel Puente and Michael Carus, nova-Institut GmbH, Germany October 2019 This and other reports on the bio-based economy are available at www.bio-based.eu/reports Authors: Raj Chinthapalli, Ángel Puente, Pia Skoczinski, Achim Raschka, Michael Carus, nova-Institut GmbH, Germany October 2019 This and other reports on the bio-based economy are available at www.bio-based.eu/reports Authors: Achim Raschka, Pia Skoczinski, Jan Ravenstijn and Michael Carus, nova-Institut GmbH, Germany February 2019 This and other reports on the bio-based economy are available at www.bio-based.eu/reports THE BEST MARKET REPORTS AVAILABLE Bio- and CO 2 -based Polymers & Building Blocks Bio-based Building Blocks and Polymers – Global Capacities, Production and Trends 2018 – 2023 Standards and labels for bio-based products Bio-based polymers, a revolutionary change Policies impacting bio-based plastics market development Comprehensive trend report on PHA, PLA, PUR/TPU, PA and polymers based on FDCA and SA: Latest developments, producers, drivers and lessons learnt and plastic bags legislation in Europe Fff Bio-based polymers, a revolutionary change Jan Ravenstijn March 2017 Picture: Gehr Kunststoffwerk E-mail: j.ravenstijn@kpnmail.nl Mobile: +31.6.2247.8593 Authors: Raj Chinthapalli, Pia Skoczinski, Michael Carus, Wolfgang Baltus, Doris de Guzman, Harald Käb, Achim Raschka, Jan Ravenstijn February 2019 This and other reports on the bio- and CO 2- based economy are available at www.bio-based.eu/reports Authors: Lara Dammer, Michael Carus and Dr. Asta Partanen nova-Institut GmbH, Germany May 2017 This and other reports on the bio-based economy are available at www.bio-based.eu/reports Author: Jan Ravenstijn, Jan Ravenstijn Consulting, the Netherlands April 2017 This and other reports on the bio-based economy are available at www.bio-based.eu/reports Authors: Dirk Carrez, Clever Consult, Belgium Jim Philp, OECD, France Dr. Harald Kaeb, narocon Innovation Consulting, Germany Lara Dammer & Michael Carus, nova-Institute, Germany March 2017 This and other reports on the bio-based economy are available at www.bio-based.eu/reports Asian markets for bio-based chemical building blocks and polymers Share of Asian production capacity on global production by polymer in 2016 Market study on the consumption of biodegradable and compostable plastic products in Europe 2015 and 2020 A comprehensive market research report including consumption figures by polymer and application types as well as by geography, plus analyses of key players, relevant policies and legislation and a special feature on biodegradation and composting standards and labels Brand Views and Adoption of Bio-based Polymers Wood-Plastic Composites (WPC) and Natural Fibre Composites (NFC) European and Global Markets 2012 and Future Trends in Automotive and Construction Bestsellers APC – cyclic Starch Blends Disposable tableware Biowaste bags Carrier bags Rigid packaging Flexible packaging Author: Wolfgang Baltus, Wobalt Expedition Consultancy, Thailand This and other reports on the bio-based economy are available at www.bio-based.eu/reports Authors: Harald Kaeb (narocon, lead), Florence Aeschelmann, Lara Dammer, Michael Carus (nova-Institute) April 2016 This and other reports on the bio-based economy are available at www.bio-based.eu/reports Author: Dr. Harald Kaeb, narocon Innovation Consulting, Germany January 2016 This and other reports on the bio-based economy are available at www.bio-based.eu/reports Authors: Michael Carus, Dr. Asta Eder, Lara Dammer, Dr. Hans Korte, Lena Scholz, Roland Essel, Elke Breitmayer, Martha Barthn This and other reports on the bio-based economy are available at www.bio-based.eu/reports www.bio-based.eu/reports bioplastics MAGAZINE [01/20] Vol. 15 13

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