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Issue 01/2016

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Automotive Foam Basics: Public Procurement

Polyamides are made by

Polyamides are made by polycondensation of dicarbonic acids with diamines or by polyaddition of lactames. e.g. PA 66 or PA 6. Succinic acid and its derivates 1,4 –di-amino butane or in academic research have been magnetic and crystallographic data. Furthermore, there is no clarity regarding melting point and temperature stability to be found in the literature, an important subject to enable its practical use. The Fraunhofer-UMSICHT scientists synthesized high melting point of 329 °C indicates high density of hydrogen bonding of the amide groups. 10 years ago Published in bioplastics MAGAZINE 10 YEARS AGO new series In January 2016, Dr. Stephan Kabasci (Fraunhofer UMSICHT) comments: “Succinic acid fermentation was improved considerably with respect to concentration and yield in the course of the project. PA44, however, proved to be highly sensitive to temperature so that thermoplastic melt processing was not feasible.” Materials Succinic acid: versatile platform chemical The Fraunhofer-Institut für Umwelt, Sicherheits- und Energietechnik UMSICHT in Oberhausen, Germany has recently published some basic findings about the synthesis of polyamide from succinic acid, a substance that can be derived from renewable sources. A poster, presented at the International Conference on Renewable Resources and Biorefineries in Ghent, Belgium (Sept. 19 – 21, 2005) won the conference’s “Poster Award”. Succinic acid [HOC(O)CH 2 CH 2 C(O)OH] is a platform chemical that can be used directly or as intermediate for a large number of applications such as for plastics, paints, food additives and other industrial and consumer products. Today, succinic acid is produced mainly by chemical processes from petrochemical feedstocks. “But it can also be won from renewable sources” says Dr. Stephan Kabasci, one of the authors of the poster. For the fermentation of succinic acid from glucose, From starch to polyamide – via succinic acid Polyamide from bio-amber Synthesis of polyamide two strains of anaerobic bacteria have been tested on a laboratory scale: Anaerobiospirillum succiniciproducens (DSM 6400) and Actinobacillus succinogenes (ATCC 55618). Other experiments with starch from different sources showed that the highest succinate concentration was achieved with maize starch (see Fig. 1). 2-pyrrolidinone are therefore raw materials for the production of polyamide 4.4 or polyamide 4. Only a few articles have been published in literature in relation to polyamide 4.4. Main topics polyamide 4.4 in a polycondensation process. The resulting product takes up water to form gelatinous mass and is a very hard material in dry state. The melting point of a sample that has not been fully refined is shown in Fig. 2. The extreme A comprehensive article about polyamides made from bio-based succinic acid, their potential for packaging and technical applications and including a discussion of the cost issue is planned for the next issue of bioplastics magazine. www.umsicht.fraunhofer.de/english Formation of Succinic acid by fermentation of starch types Start concentration of starch types :15gL -1 Succinic Acid Concentration / gL -1 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Maize Starch Potato Starch Wheat Sarch 0 0 40 80 120 160 200 240 time / h 50 40 30 20 10 0 Succinate Yield [g/100 g substrate] Fig. 1: Left: Succinate production from starch types by fermentation Right: Specific Yield of succinate from different substrates Glucose Maize starch Wheat starch Potato starch Cellulose endo 0,45 first heating and cooling 20-250-50 °C, desorption of water 0,40 second heating 20 KMin -1 0,35 0,30 0,25 0,20 0,15 0,10 329 °C 80 120 160 200 240 280 320 360 temperature / °C heat flow / mWmg -1 Fig. 2: DSC thermogramof raw Polyamide 4.4 14 bioplastics [06/01] Vol. 1 32 bioplastics MAGAZINE [01/16] Vol. 11

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