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Pla ® . These resins

Pla ® . These resins can for example be used as mulch films, rubbish bags and ‘flushable’ hygiene products [4]. Polyamides are made by polycondensation of dicarbonic acids with diamines or by polyaddition of lactames. e.g. PA 66 or PA 6. Succinic acid and its derivates 1,4 –di-amino butane or 2-pyrrolidinone are therefore raw materials for the production of polyamide 4.4 or polyamide 4 [3]. Other applications include thermoset resins, pigments, phthalate free plasticizers, coating components, adhesives, sealants, personal care ingredients and more. As an acidulant and preservative made from plant based feedstocks, bio-succinic acid offers multi-functionality with a unique flavor profile to food and flavor formulations [1]. Bio-based succinic acid can also serve as a building block for large volume chemical intermediates such as 1,4-butanediol (bio-BDO) [11]. Environmental Sustainability Benefits Today’s technology for the production of succinic acid from biomass can realise up to 99.4% reduction in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions compared to the production of equivalent petrochemical products [11]. With R&D development, succinic acid production from maize could lead to non-renewable energy savings of 51 to 68 GJ/tonne (53-71%) compared to petrochemical production via maleic acid. Lignocellulosic feedstock could increase this saving to 61-82%. The land requirement for shifting to future biotechnology production ranges from 0.07 to 0.32 ha/tonne depending on technology and feedstock [12]. [1] acid [2] N.N.: Wikipedia [3] N.N.: Polyamide from bio-amber, bioplastics MAGAZINE 01/2006 [4] N.N.: NNFCC Renewable Chemicals Factsheet: Succinic Acid, 2013 [5] [6] BioAmber – personal information, 30 April 2013 [7] Smidt, M.: A sustainable supply of succinic acid; Euro|Biotech|News No. 11-12, Vol. 10, 2011 [8] N.N.: BASF and CSM establish 50-50 joint venture for biobased succinic acid, Press-Release P-12-444,, 2012 [9] N.N.: Biobased succinic acid for PBS – production capacities to be confirmed in 2013, European Bioplastics Bulletin 01/2013 [10] N.N.: personal information, Reverdia, May 2013 [11] N.N.: BioAmber Bio-SA Earns High Score in Environmental Leader Technology Reviews; BioAmber Press Release, March 4, 2013 [12] The BREW Project. Medium and Long-term Opportunities and Risks of the Biotechnological Production of Bulk Chemicals from Renewable Resources – The Potential of White Biotechnology; 2006. 62 bioplastics MAGAZINE [03/13] Vol. 8

Opinion Market studies by Michael Carus, nova-Institute The nova-Institute carried out the study ‘Biobased Polymers in the World; Capacities, Production and Applications: Status Quo and Trends towards 2020’ in collaboration with renowned international experts from the field of biobased polymers. Considerably higher production capacity was found than in previous studies. The 4.6 million tonnes represent a share of 2% of an overall structural polymer production of 235 million tonnes in 2012. The table below shows for example the data of the latest market study from ifBB in comparison with nova’s findings for the year 2012. What are the reasons for this huge difference? 1) It is the first time that a study has looked at every kind of biobased polymer and their precursors, now including 48 polymers and 65 building blocks produced by 247 companies at 363 locations around the world and it examines in detail 12 biopolymer families produced by 114 companies in 135 locations (see table). 2) Following the focus on polymers in structural applications, Cellulose Acetate was included from the group of cellulosebased polymers. Other Cellulose derivatives are either used in functional applications or closely related to paper due to their production process (which is out of scope). 3) The capacities for PET are derived from the capacities of its precursor bio-MEG (Monoethylene glycol) which represents the bottleneck in the production of bio-PET right now. 4) The study also covers the large group of thermosets like epoxy resins, alkyd resins, unsaturated polyester resins and several others, based on natural oil polyols. Due to the structure of the value chain, the capacities here are derived from capacities and development of their precursors. Polyurethanes are regarded separately, as an own group of polymers, be they thermosetting or thermoplastic. 5) For PA, PUR and starch blends higher capacities were found, that information mainly comes directly from the processing companies. Methodology of the nova study This study focuses exclusively on bio-based polymer producers, and the market data therefore does not cover the bio-based plastics branch in an attempt to avoid double counting over the various steps in the value chain. For more details about the methodology see issue 02/2013 of bioplastics MAGAZINE or nova-Institut ifBB 2013 (European Bioplastics) Bio-based polymers Producing companies until 2020 Locations Production capacities in 2012 (t/a) Production capacities in 2012 (t/a) Cellulose Acetate 9 15 835.000 - Cellulose Derivatives / Regenerated Cellulose - - - 34.000 PA 14 17 70.000 23.000 PBS / PBAT 14 15 175.000 122.000 PC - - - 250 PCL - - - 1.250 PE 3 * 2 200.000 200.000 PP 1 1 0 - PET 4 4 850.000 542.000 PHAs 14 16 30.000 21.750 PLA 27 32 190.000 186.000 PUR 10 10 150.000 1.250 PVC 2 2 0 - Starch Blends 19 21 335.000 140.000 Thermosets n.a. ** n.a. ** 1.775.000 - TPE - - - 2.500 Total 114 135 4.610.000 1.274.000 Additional companies included in the “Bio-based Polymer Producer Database” 133 228 Total companies and locations recorded in the Market Study 247 363 * Including Joint Venture of two companies sharing one location, counting as two ** The final composition of a thermoset is not determined by the big chemical companies, but by multitude of formulators. In order to get capacitites’ data it is necessary to look at the renewable building blocks (monomeric and polymeric) that are used for thermosets. bioplastics MAGAZINE [03/13] Vol. 8 63

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