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Report Valorisation of

Report Valorisation of by-products BioTRANSformation of by-products from fruit and vegetable processing industry into valuable BIOproducts by Thomas Dietrich TRANSBIO Coordinator TECNALIA Miñano – Álava, Spain Sustainable use of renewable raw materials is required to become a long lasting biobased economy. OECD stated already in 2001 that the use of eco-efficient bio-processes and renewable raw materials is one of the key strategic challenges for the 21 st century. Nevertheless, renewable raw materials must be used in a sustainable and environmental sound manner, as increasing demand for industrial products and energy from biomass will inevitably lead to an expansion of global arable land at the expense of natural ecosystems. Current strategies for utilization of biomass for food, biofuels and biomaterials resulted in some areas in increased land utilization for monocultures and competition of raw materials for food and fuel. According to OECD-FAO Agricultural Outlook (2012), some of 65% of EU vegetable oil, 50% of Brazilian sugarcane and 40% of US corn production are being used as feedstock for biofuel production. In parallel worldwide available agricultural area per person reduced significantly from 1,05 ha (1980) to 0,70 ha (2011) (FAOSTAT, 2013). Therefore, new untapped renewable resources such as by-products from fruit and vegetable transforming industry must be evaluated for their potential to be used as base material for biomaterials and platform chemicals. The aim of the European project TRANSBIO (grant agreement no. 289603) is the implementation of an innovative cascading concept for the valorisation of by-products from fruit and vegetable processing industry, using environmental friendly biotechnological solutions to transform these by-products into biopolymers, platform chemicals and enzymes. Currently, Transbio is characterizing several fruit and vegetable by-products in order to select the most appropriate ones for further pre-treatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. In order to obtain a broad application potential for the by-products selected, the partners investigate different fermentation strategies – submerged cultivation in liquid media (bacteria, yeasts) and solid state fermentation (fungi). Parallel to on-going by-product characterisation and selection, partners identify several new strains to be utilized in the concept. Beside optimisation and up-scaling of fermentation protocols, down-stream processing will be developed keeping in mind economical feasible and sustainable procedures. The procedures will be implemented for extra cellular succinic acid production using novel non-conventional yeast strains, extracellular enzyme formation in solid state fermentation, as well as polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) production in submerged fermentation. The obtained PHB will be tested in packaging application, enzymes will be proved for detergent utilisation and succinic acid will be purified for food applications. In order to achieve these objectives, the project is receiving funding from the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013). 12 bioplastics MAGAZINE [03/13] Vol. 8

Market study on Bio-based Polymers in the World Capacities, Production and Applications: Status Quo and Trends towards 2020 Bio-based polymers – Production capacity will triple from 3.5 million tonnes in 2011 to nearly 12 million tonnes in 2020 Germany’s nova-Institute is publishing the most comprehensive market study of bio-based polymers ever made. The nova-Institute carried out this study in collaboration with renowned international experts from the field of bio-based polymers. It is the first time that a study has looked at every kind of biobased polymer produced by 247 companies at 363 locations around the world and it examines in detail 114 companies in 135 locations (see table). Considerably higher production capacity was found than in previous studies. The 3.5 million tonnes represent a share of 1.5 % of an overall construction polymer production of 235 million tonnes in 2011. Current producers of bio-based polymers estimate that production capacity will reach nearly 12 million tonnes by 2020. million t/a 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 2011 PLA Bio-based polymers: Evolution of production capacities from 2011 to 2020 2012 2013 Starch Blends 2014 2015 PHA 2016 2017 PA 2018 2019 PBAT 2020 PBS Content of the full report This over 360-page report presents the findings of nova-Institute’s year-long market study, which is made up of three parts: “market data”, “trend reports” and “company profiles”. The “market data” section presents market data about total production and capacities and the main application fields for selected bio-based polymers worldwide (status quo in 2011, trends and investments towards 2020). The “trend reports” section contains a total of six independent articles by leading experts in the field of bio-based polymers and plastics. Dirk Carrez (Clever Consult) and Michael Carus (nova-Institute) focus on policies that impact on the bio-based economy. Jan Ravenstijn analyses the main market, technology and environmental trends for bio-based polymers and their precursors worldwide. Wolfgang Baltus (NIA) reviews Asian markets for bio-based resins. Roland Essel (nova-Institute) provides an environmental evaluation of bio-based polymers, and Janpeter Beckmann (nova- Institute) presents the findings of a survey concerning Green Premium within the value chain leading from chemicals to bio-based plastics. Finally, Harald Kaeb (narocon) reports detailed information about brand strategies and customer views within the bio-based polymers and plastics industry. These trend reports cover in detail every recent issue in the worldwide bio-based polymer market. The final “company profiles” section includes 114 company profiles with specific data including locations, bio-based polymers, feedstocks, production capacities and applications. A company index by polymers, and list of acronyms follow. “Bio-based Polymers Producer Database” and updates to the report To conduct this study nova-Institute developed the “Bio-based Polymers Producer Database”, which includes a company profile of every company involved in the production of bio-based polymers and their precursors. This encompasses (state of affairs in 2011 and forecasts for 2020) basic information on the company (joint ventures, partnerships, technology and bio-based products) and its various manufacturing facilities. For each bio-based product, the database provides information about production and capacities, feedstocks, main application fields, market prices and biobased share. Access to the database is already available. The database will be constantly updated by the experts who have contributed to this report. Buyers of the report will have free access to the database for one year. Everyone who has access to the database can automatically generate graphics and tables concerning production capacity, production and application sectors for all bio-based polymers based on the latest data collection. Order the full report The full 360-page report contains three main parts – “market data”, six “trend reports” and 114 “company profiles” – and can be ordered for 6,500 € plus VAT at: This also includes oneyear access to the “Biobased Polymers Producer Database”, which will be continuously updated. © © Polyolefins | 2013 PET CA PU Thermosets Evolution of the shares of bio-based production capacities in different regions 20% 15% 52% | 2013 2011 2020 13% North America South America 14% 13% 55% Asia Europe 18% Quellen: FEDIOL 2010 BIO-BASED POLYMERS AVERAGE BIOMASS CONTENT OF POLYMER PRODUCING COMPANIESUNTIL 2020 LOCATIONS Cellulose Acetate CA 50% 9 15 Polyamide PA rising to 60%* 14 17 Polybutylene Adipate PBAT rising to 50%* 3 3 Terephthalat Polybutylene Succinate PBS rising to 80%* 11 12 Polyethylene PE 100% 3** 2 Polyethylene Terephthalat PET 30% to 35%*** 4 4 Polyhydroxy Alkanoates PHAs 100% 14 16 Polylactic Acid PLA 100% 27 32 Polypropylene PP 100% 1 1 Polyvinyl Chloride PVC 43% 2 2 Polyurethane PUR 30% 10 10 Starch Blends **** 40% 19 21 Total companies covered with detailed information in this report 114 135 Additional companies included in the “Bio-based Polymer Producer Database” 133 228 Total companies and locations recorded in the market study 247 363 * Currently still mostly fossil-based with existing drop-in solutions and a steady upward trend of the average bio-based share up to given percentage in 2020 ** Including Joint Venture of two companies sharing one location, counting as two *** Upcoming capacities of bio-pTA (purifi ed Terephthalic Acid) are calculated to increase the average bio-based share, not the total bio-PET capacity **** Starch in plastic compound

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