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Material Combinations

Material Combinations Photo iStock Bio-based polymers are evolving to meet OEM expectations Sophisticated Heat Deflection Temp (°C) 150 140 130 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 blends for by Marcel Dartee Marketing Director Sustainable Solutions & Biomaterials, Automotive interiors High Heat Packaging PLA durable biopolymers Mobile phone covers PolyOne Assesse, Belgium Enclosures for home healthcare and electronics 40 0 200 400 600 800 Impact strength at room temp Figure 1. Performance requirements for potential biopolymer applications, heat deflection temperature vs. impact strength. As material providers advance forward on the biopolymer development learning curve, their efforts have been squarely focused on improving the durability of bio-based plastics. This is a switch from the past, when development centered around biodegradability. Instead, these producers are responding to a rising desire for durable biopolymers from OEM customers in consumer, electronics, alternative energy, automotive and other markets. In part, these applications require a combination of heat resistance and impact strength as shown in Fig. 1: These OEMs are seeking to fulfill sustainability targets by incorporating materials that reduce carbon footprint and fossil energy requirements while also providing the same functional performance as fossil-fuel-based counterparts such as PC and ABS. Several high profile manufacturers are outspoken in this endeavor: • Nokia is actively researching the development and deployment of biomaterials that can potentially reduce dependence on fossil fuel-based raw materials • Peugeot Citroën has an objective of 30% bio-based materials by 2015 for its vehicles • ebm-papst has a goal to replace 15% of the plastics it uses today with sustainable biomaterials by 2015 • Schneider Electric and ABB have publicly stated goals to create more environmentally friendly products One way to achieve durability in bio-based formulations is to combine engineering thermoplastic resins, such as ABS and PC with bio-derived polymers such as PHB, PHB, PLA and bio-polyesters. This is the approach taken by PolyOne in creating its reSound family of biobased polymers. One of the newest grades, reSound 1200, has recently undergone testing to confirm its performance versus PC/ABS, as shown in Fig. 2. Please note that version 0001 of the material contains 45% bio-derived polymer by weight, and version 0002 contains 50%. By switching from PC or PC/ABS to reSound materials, manufacturers not only improve the bio-derived content of their products, but can also benefit from a lower carbon footprint and gross energy requirements. Bio-based content can be expressed as a weight percentage of the ingredients. So for example, reSound 1200- 0002 contains 50% bio-based content by weight. 20 bioplastics MAGAZINE [02/13] Vol. 8

Material Combinations Figure 2. reSound 1200 mechanical and physical properties vs. PC/ABS Mold Shrinkage Density MFR 1.40 1.20 1.00 0.80 0.60 0.40 0.20 0.00 Notched Izod Impact Flex Modulus PC/ABS reSound 1200-0001 reSound 1200-0002 Tensile Elongation @Yield HDT Tensile Strength @ Yield Content can also be measured as the percentage of renewable bio-based carbon atoms found in the total carbon atoms, according test method ASTM 6868. This value can be measured by BETA analytics and can be certified on final products, such as OK Biobased/Vincotte (EU) and BioPreferred (USA). Ecoprofile calculations were done to determine the relative environmental impact versus incumbent materials. The carbon footprint for reSound 1200-0002 showed that the bio-based material had approximately a 45% smaller carbon footprint than PC, and a 33% smaller footprint than a standard reference for PC/ABS. Greenhouse gas emissions were expressed in kg CO 2 equivalent per kg polymer. Gross energy requirements for this material showed that reSound 1200-0002 reduced the amount of gross energy required, expressed in joules per kg of polymer, by 35% and 31% versus PC and PC/ABS. Basics book on bioplastics This book, created and published by Polymedia Publisher, maker of bioplastics MAGAZINE is now available in English and German language. The book is intended to offer a rapid and uncomplicated introduction into the subject of bioplastics, and is aimed at all interested readers, in particular those who have not yet had the opportunity to dig deeply into the subject, such as students, those just joining this industry, and lay readers. It gives an introduction to plastics and bioplastics, explains which renewable resources can be used to produce bioplastics, what types of bioplastic exist, and which ones are already on the market. Further aspects, such as market development, the agricultural land required, and waste disposal, are also examined. An extensive index allows the reader to find specific aspects quickly, and is complemented by a comprehensive literature list and a guide to sources of additional information on the Internet. The author Michael Thielen is editor and publisher bioplastics MAGAZINE. He is a qualified machinery design engineer with a degree in plastics technology from the RWTH University in Aachen. He has written several books on the subject of blowmoulding technology and disseminated his knowledge of plastics in numerous presentations, seminars, guest lectures and teaching assignments. 110 pages full color, paperback ISBN 978-3-9814981-1-0: Bioplastics ISBN 978-3-9814981-0-3: Biokunststoffe Order now for € 18.65 or US-$ 25.00 (+ VAT where applicable, plus shipping and handling, ask for details) order at, by phone +49 2161 6884463 or by e-mail bioplastics MAGAZINE [02/13] Vol. 8 21

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