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Foam Applications Owing

Foam Applications Owing to the fact that it has similar mechanical and thermal properties to polyolefins, PHBV is considered a promising alternative for fossil resource based polymers in the automotive, construction, agricultural, and packaging industries [16]. PHBV exhibits excellent barrier properties; thus, can be used in packaging and agricultural industries [17,18]. In the agricultural industry, PHBV is also used as a carrier for pesticides in order to achieve the controlled release of pesticides via PHBV biodegradation [18]. Additionally, due to its natural origin and microbial polymerization process, PHBV does not contain any catalytic residues, which makes it suitable for biomedical applications such as bone tissue engineering, cartilage tissue engineering, nerve guidance channels, intestinal patches, wound dressings, surgical sutures, and drug carrier systems [19]. Several research groups have blended PHBV with other biodegradable polymers such as PPC (polypropylene carbonate) [4] and PBAT (polybutylene adipate terephthalate) [5] to modify its mechanical, biodegradation, and morphological properties and to broaden its applicability in various industries. Also, natural fibers such as wood fiber [20], bamboo fiber [11], wheat straw [21], flax [22], abaca [22], jute [23], and coir fiber [24], which are cheap, lightweight, and abundantly available, have been incorporated into the PHBV matrix to tailor its mechanical properties and reduce its weight and production cost. Moreover, inorganic nanofillers such as nanoclays have been incorporated into the PHBV matrix to modify the mechanical and thermal properties of PHBV [25]. With the continuous development of new PHBV-based blends and composites and new processing technologies, an even broader range of applications are anticipated for biobased and biodegradable PHBV. References 1. K.G. Satyanarayana, G.G.C. Arizaga, F. Wypych, Progress in Polymer Science, Vol. 34, p. 982, 2009. 2. A. K. Mohanty, M. Misra, G. Hinrichsen, Macromolecular Materials and Engineering, Vol. 276, p. 1, 2000. 3. S. F. Wang, C. J. Song, G. X. Chen, T.Y. Guo, J. Liu, B.H. Zhang, S. Takeuchi, Polymer Degradation and Stability, Vol. 87, p. 69, 2005. 4. J. Li, M.F. Lai, J.J. Liu, Journal of Applied Polymer Science, Vol. 98, p. 1427, 2005. 5. A. Javadi, A. J. Kramschuster, S. Pilla, J. Lee, S. Gong, L. S.Turng, Polymer Engineering and Science, Vol. 50, p. 1440, 2010. 6. S. Gong, L.S. Turng, C. Park, L. Liao, “Microcellular Polymer Nanocomposites for Packaging and other Applications,” in: A. Mohanty, M. Misra, H.S. Nalwa, eds., Packaging Nanotechnology, American Scientific Publishers, pp.144, 2008. 7. M. Avella, E. Martuscelli, M. Raimo, Journal of Materials Science, Vol. 35, p. 523, 2000. 8. M.J. Jenkins, Y. Cao, L. Howell, G.A. Leeke, Polymer, Vol. 48, p. 6304, 2007. 9. M. Avella, G.B. Gaceva, A. Buzarovska, M.E. Errico, G. Gentile, Journal of Applied Polymer Science, Vol. 104, p. 3192, 2007. 10. S. Luo, A.N. Netravali, Polymer Composites, Vol. 20, p. 367, 1999. 11. S. Singh, A. K. Mohanty, T. Sugie, Y. Takai, H. Hamada, Composites: Part A, Vol. 39, p. 875, 2008. 12. G. J. M. Koning, P. J. Lemstra, Polymer, Vol. 34, p. 4089, 1993. 13. G. J. M. Koning, A. H. C. Scheeren, P. J. Lemstra, M. Peeters, H. Reynaers, Polymer Vol. 35, p. 4598, 1994. 14. J. K. Hobbs, T. J. McMaaster, M. J. Miles, P. J. Barham, Polymer, Vol. 37, p. 3241, 1996. 15. P. J. Barham, A. Keller, Journal of Polymer Science Part B: Polymer Physics, Vol. 24, p. 69, 1986. 16. L. Jiang, E. Morelius, J. Zhang, M. Wolcott, J. Holbery, Journal of Composite Materials, Vol. 42, p. 2629, 2008. 17. C.A. Lauzier, C.J. Monasterios, I. Saracovan, R.H. Marchessault, B.A. Ramsay, Tappi Journal, Vol. 76, p. 71, 1993. 18. P. A. Holmes, UK Patent Application, Great Britain, 2160208, 1985. 19. C.W. Pouton, S. Akhtar, Advanced Drug Delivery Review, Vol. 18, p. 133, 1996. 20. S. Singh, A.K. Mohanty, Composites Science and Technology, Vol. 67, p. 1753, 2007. 21. M. 26, G. Rota, E. Martuscelli, M. Raimo, P. Sadocco, G. Elegir, Journal of Materials Science, Vol. 35, p. 829, 2000. 22. N.M. Barkoula, S.K. Garkhail, T. Peijs, Industrial Crops and Products, Vol. 31, p. 34, 2010. 23. A.K. Bledzki, A. Jaszkiewicz, Composites Science and Technology, Vol. 70, p. 1687, 2010. 24. A. Javadi, Y. Srithep, S. Pilla, J. Lee, S. Gong, L. S. Turng, Materials Science and Engineering: C, Vol. 30, p. 749, 2010. 25. G.X. Chen, G.J. Hao, T.Y. Guo, M.D. Song, B.H. Zhang, Journal of Applied Polymer Science, Vol. 93, p. 655, 2004. 30 bioplastics MAGAZINE [01/12] Vol. 7

Materials VTT Technical Research Centre, Espoo, Finland and Aalto University, Espoo/Helsinki, Finlandm have developed a method which for the first time enables manufacturing of a wood-based and plastic-like material in large scale. The method enables industrial scale roll-to-roll production of nanofibrillated cellulose film, which is suitable for e.g. food packaging to protect products from spoilage. Nanofibrillated cellulose typically binds high amounts of water and forms gels with only a few per cent dry matter content. This characteristic has been a bottleneck for industrial-scale manufacture. In most cases, fibril cellulose films are manufactured through pressurised filtering but the gel-like nature of the material makes this route difficult. In addition, the wires and membranes used for filtering may leave a so-called ‘mark’ on the film which has a negative impact on the evenness of the surface. Transparent plastic-like packing material from birch fibril pulp magnetic_148, 175.00 lpi 15.00° 14.03.2009 10:13:31 magnetic_148, 175.00 lpi 75.00° 0.00° 45.00° 14.03.2009 10:13:31 Prozess CyanProzess MagentaProzess GelbProzess Schwarz According to the method developed by VTT and Aalto University nanofibrillated cellulose films are manufactured by evenly coating fibril cellulose on plastic films so that the spreading and adhesion on the surface of the plastic can be controlled. The films are dried in a controlled manner by using a range of existing techniques. Thanks to the management of spreading, adhesion and drying, the films do not shrink and are completely even. The more fibrillated cellulose material is used, the more transparent films can be manufactured. Several metres of fibril cellulose film have been manufactured with VTT’s pilot-scale device in Espoo. All the phases in the method can be transferred to industrial production processes. The films can be manufactured using devices that already exist in the industry, without the need for any major additional investment. VTT and Aalto University are applying for a patent for the production technology of NFC film. Trial runs and the related development work are performed at VTT. K The invention was implemented in the Naseva – Tailoring of Nanocellulose Structures for Industrial Applications project by the Finnish Funding Agency for Technology and Innovation (Tekes) that is included in the Finnish Centre for Nanocellulosic Technologies project entity formed by UPM, VTT and Aalto University. Nanofibrillated cellulose grade used was UPM Fibrilcellulose supplied by UPM. C M Y CM MY CY CMY Magnetic for Plastics • International Trade in Raw Materials, Machinery & Products Free of Charge • Daily News from the Industrial Sector and the Plastics Markets • Current Market Prices for Plastics. • Buyer’s Guide for Plastics & Additives, Machinery & Equipment, Subcontractors and Services. • Job Market for Specialists and Executive Staff in the Plastics Industry Up-to-date • Fast • Professional bioplastics MAGAZINE [01/12] Vol. 7 31

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