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bioplasticsMAGAZINE_0906

Basics Readers who know

Basics Readers who know better explanations or who would like to suggest other explanations to be added to the list, please contact the editor. [*: bM ... refers to more comprehensive article previously published in bioplastics MAGAZINE) Microorganism | Living organisms of microscopic size, such as bacteria, funghi or yeast. PCL | Polycaprolactone, a synthetic (fossil based), biodegradable bioplastic, e.g. used as a blend component. PHA | Polyhydroxyalkanoates are linear polyesters produced in nature by bacterial fermentation of sugar or lipids. The most common type of PHA is à PHB. PHB | Polyhydroxyl buteric acid (better poly- 3-hydroxybutyrate), is a polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA), a polymer belonging to the polyesters class. PHB is produced by micro-organisms apparently in response to conditions of physiological stress. The polymer is primarily a product of carbon assimilation (from glucose or starch) and is employed by micro-organisms as a form of energy storage molecule to be metabolized when other common energy sources are not available. PHB has properties similar to those of PP, however it is stiffer and more brittle. PLA | Polylactide or Polylactic Acid (PLA) is a biodegradable, thermoplastic, aliphatic polyester from lactic acid. Lactic acid is made from dextrose by fermentation. Bacterial fermentation is used to produce lactic acid from corn starch, cane sugar or other sources. However, lactic acid cannot be directly polymerized to a useful product, because each polymerization reaction generates one molecule of water, the presence of which degrades the forming polymer chain to the point that only very low molecular weights are observed. Instead, lactic acid is oligomerized and then catalytically dimerized to make the cyclic lactide monomer. Although dimerization also generates water, it can be separated prior to polymerization. PLA of high molecular weight is produced from the lactide monomer by ring-opening polymerization using a catalyst. This mechanism does not generate additional water, and hence, a wide range of molecular weights are accessible (bM 01/2009). Saccharins or carbohydrates | Saccharins or carbohydrates are name for the sugar-family. Saccharins are monomer or polymer sugar units. For example, there are known mono-, di- and polysaccharose. à glucose is a monosaccarin. They are important for the diet and produced biology in plants. Sorbitol | Sugar alcohol, obtained by reduction of glucose changing the aldehyde group to an additional hydroxyl group. S. is used as a plasticiser for bioplastics based on starch. Starch | Natural polymer (carbohydrate) consisting of à amylose and à amylopectin, gained from maize, potatoes, wheat, tapioca etc. When glucose is connected to polymerchains in definite way the result (product) is called starch. Each molecule is based on 300 -12000-glucose units. Depending on the connection, there are two types à amylose and à amylopectin known. Starch (-derivate) | Starch (-derivates) are based on the chemical structure of à starch. The chemical structure can be changed by introducing new functional groups without changing the à starch polymer. The product has different chemical qualities. Mostly the hydrophilic character is not the same. Starch-ester | One characteristic of every starch-chain is a free hydroxyl group. When every hydroxyl group is connect with ethan acid one product is starch-ester with different chemical properties. Starch propionate and starch butyrate | Starch propionate and starch butyrate can be synthesised by treating the à starch with propane or butanic acid. The product structure is still based on à starch. Every based à glucose fragment is connected with a propionate or butyrate ester group. The product is more hydrophobic than à starch. Sustainable | An attempt to provide the best outcomes for the human and natural environments both now and into the indefinite future. One of the most often cited definitions of sustainability is the one created by the Brundtland Commission, led by the former Norwegian Prime Minister Gro Harlem Brundtland. The Brundtland Commission defined sustainable development as development that ‘meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.’ Sustainability relates to the continuity of economic, social, institutional and environmental aspects of human society, as well as the non-human environment). Sustainability | (as defined by European Bioplastics e.V.) has three dimensions: economic, social and environmental. This has been known as “the triple bottom line of sustainability”. This means that sustainable development involves the simultaneous pursuit of economic prosperity, environmental protection and social equity. In other words, businesses have to expand their responsibility to include these environmental and social dimensions. Sustainability is about making products useful to markets and, at the same time, having societal benefits and lower environmental impact than the alternatives currently available. It also implies a commitment to continuous improvement that should result in a further reduction of the environmental footprint of today’s products, processes and raw materials used. Thermoplastics | Plastics which soften or melt when heated and solidify when cooled (solid at room temperature). Yard Waste | Grass clippings, leaves, trimmings, garden residue. bioplastics MAGAZINE [06/09] Vol. 4 47

10 20 Suppliers Guide 1. Raw Materials 2. Additives / Secondary raw materials 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 BASF SE Global Business Management Biodegradable Polymers Carl-Bosch-Str. 38 67056 Ludwigshafen, Germany Tel. +49-621 60 43 878 Fax +49-621 60 21 694 plas.com@basf.com www.ecovio.com www.basf.com/ecoflex 1.1 bio based monomers Du Pont de Nemours International S.A. 2, Chemin du Pavillon, PO Box 50 CH 1218 Le Grand Saconnex, Geneva, Switzerland Tel. + 41 22 717 5428 Fax + 41 22 717 5500 jonathan.v.cohen@che.dupont.com www.packaging.dupont.com PURAC division Arkelsedijk 46, P.O. Box 21 4200 AA Gorinchem - The Netherlands Tel.: +31 (0)183 695 695 Fax: +31 (0)183 695 604 www.purac.com PLA@purac.com 1.2 compounds FKuR Kunststoff GmbH Siemensring 79 D - 47 877 Willich Tel. +49 2154 9251-0 Tel.: +49 2154 9251-51 sales@fkur.com www.fkur.com Natur-Tec ® - Northern Technologies 4201 Woodland Road Circle Pines, MN 55014 USA Tel. +1 763.225.6600 Fax +1 763.225.6645 info@natur-tec.com www.natur-tec.com Transmare Compounding B.V. Ringweg 7, 6045 JL Roermond, The Netherlands Tel. +31 475 345 900 Fax +31 475 345 910 info@transmare.nl www.compounding.nl 1.3 PLA Division of A&O FilmPAC Ltd 7 Osier Way, Warrington Road GB-Olney/Bucks. MK46 5FP Tel.: +44 844 335 0886 Fax: +44 1234 713 221 sales@aandofilmpac.com www.bioresins.eu 1.4 starch-based bioplastics Plantic Technologies Limited 51 Burns Road Altona VIC 3018 Australia Tel. +61 3 9353 7900 Fax +61 3 9353 7901 info@plantic.com.au www.plantic.com.au PSM Bioplastic NA Chicago, USA www.psmna.com +1-630-393-0012 1.5 PHA Telles, Metabolix – ADM joint venture 650 Suffolk Street, Suite 100 Lowell, MA 01854 USA Tel. +1-97 85 13 18 00 Fax +1-97 85 13 18 86 www.mirelplastics.com Tianan Biologic No. 68 Dagang 6th Rd, Beilun, Ningbo, China, 315800 Tel. +86-57 48 68 62 50 2 Fax +86-57 48 68 77 98 0 enquiry@tianan-enmat.com www.tianan-enmat.com 1.6 masterbatches Du Pont de Nemours International S.A. 2, Chemin du Pavillon, PO Box 50 CH 1218 Le Grand Saconnex, Geneva, Switzerland Tel. + 41(0) 22 717 5428 Fax + 41(0) 22 717 5500 jonathan.v.cohen@che.dupont.com www.packaging.dupont.com 3. Semi finished products 3.1 films Huhtamaki Forchheim Herr Manfred Huberth Zweibrückenstraße 15-25 91301 Forchheim Tel. +49-9191 81305 Fax +49-9191 81244 Mobil +49-171 2439574 Maag GmbH Leckingser Straße 12 58640 Iserlohn Germany Tel. + 49 2371 9779-30 Fax + 49 2371 9779-97 shonke@maag.de www.maag.de www.earthfirstpla.com www.sidaplax.com www.plasticsuppliers.com Sidaplax UK : +44 (1) 604 76 66 99 Sidaplax Belgium: +32 9 210 80 10 Plastic Suppliers: +1 866 378 4178 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 BIOTEC Biologische Naturverpackungen GmbH & Co. KG Werner-Heisenberg-Straße 32 46446 Emmerich Germany Tel. +49 2822 92510 Fax +49 2822 51840 info@biotec.de www.biotec.de Cereplast Inc. Tel: +1 310-676-5000 / Fax: -5003 pravera@cereplast.com www.cereplast.com European distributor A.Schulman : Tel +49 (2273) 561 236 christophe_cario@de.aschulman.com BIOTEC Biologische Naturverpackungen GmbH & Co. KG Werner-Heisenberg-Straße 32 46446 Emmerich Germany Tel. +49 2822 92510 Fax +49 2822 51840 info@biotec.de www.biotec.de Limagrain Céréales Ingrédients ZAC „Les Portes de Riom“ - BP 173 63204 Riom Cedex - France Tel. +33 (0)4 73 67 17 00 Fax +33 (0)4 73 67 17 10 www.biolice.com PolyOne Avenue Melville Wilson, 2 Zoning de la Fagne 5330 Assesse Belgium Tel. + 32 83 660 211 info.color@polyone.com www.polyone.com Sukano Products Ltd. Chaltenbodenstrasse 23 CH-8834 Schindellegi Tel. +41 44 787 57 77 Fax +41 44 787 57 78 www.sukano.com 3.1.1 cellulose based films INNOVIA FILMS LTD Wigton Cumbria CA7 9BG England Contact: Andy Sweetman Tel. +44 16973 41549 Fax +44 16973 41452 andy.sweetman@innoviafilms.com www.innoviafilms.com 4. Bioplastics products alesco GmbH & Co. KG Schönthaler Str. 55-59 D-52379 Langerwehe Sales Germany: +49 2423 402 110 Sales Belgium: +32 9 2260 165 Sales Netherlands: +31 20 5037 710 info@alesco.net | www.alesco.net 48 bioplastics MAGAZINE [06/09] Vol. 4

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