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bioplasticsMAGAZINE_0905

Materials Composite

Materials Composite Technical Services Inc. (CTS), based in Kettering (Dayton), Ohio, USA, have recently established manufacturing and research and development operations. Combining innovation with environmental sustainability, CTS is providing high performance, cost effective materials and technology that include unique bio-resins and flame retardant additives. Housed in the National Composite Center (NCC), CTS is initially targeting the composites and plastics industries. Versatile Precursor Made From Cashew Nuts Cardanol from Cashew One versatile precursor for a variety of polymers is cardanol, a phenol derivative having a C15 unsaturated hydrocarbon chain with one to three double bonds in meta position. It has interesting structural features for chemical modification and polymerization. Cardanol can be obtained from anarcadic acid, the main component of Cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) Nut Shell Liquid (CNSL) by double vaccum destillation. CNSL is a renewable natural resource obtained as a by-product of the mechanical processes used to render the cashew kernel edible. Its total production approaches one million tons annually. If not used as a widely available and low cost renewable raw material, CNSL would represent a dangerous pollutant source. Cardanol-phenol resins were developed in the 1920s by a student of the Columbia University (New York) named Mortimer T. Harvey. The name ‘cardanol‘ comes from the word Anarcadium, which includes the cashew tree, Anarcadium occidentale. The name Anarcadium itself is based on the Greek word for heart. Cardanol-based resins Based on this, CTS is currently working on a breakthrough brand called Exaphen. Exaphen products use a process that extracts (exa) phenolic (phen) resins from agricultural by-products such as CNSL while retaining the special properties nature has already engineered. A unique chemical structure gives phenolic-type resins the capability to fight fire and delay the spread of flames combined while providing resistance to aggressive environments. 28 bioplastics MAGAZINE [05/09] Vol. 4

Photo: Barnabà Materials CTS offers a series of products based on the phenolic structure derived from cashew nut shells. • Cardanol-based phenolic resins (novolacs) as curing agents of commercial epoxy resins; • Cardanol-based polyols (POLYCARD XFN) for the preparation of polyurethanes; • Cardanol-based epoxy-novolacs (NOVOCARD XFN); • Saturated and unsaturated polyester resins prepared using cardanol derivatives; • Cardanol-based aminoalcohols to be used in polymeric matrices with a polyurea scaffold; • Cardanol-based acrylic and methacrylic monomers as additives for coating or varnishes; • Cardanol-based benzoxazines as either coupling agents for glass and natural fibres or as reticulating agents for epoxy resins. Cardanol based polyols for poluyrethanes Polycard XFN product line is a family of earth-friendly polyols derived from cardanol for the formulation of both high and low density rigid polyurethane foams, flexible polyurethane foams for use in insulating foams, mattresses and couches, elastomers and coatings. The high percentage of primary hydroxyl groups give these polyols a relatively high rate of reactivity with isocyanates. In addition to classic polyols an aminolachol monomer, AMINOLCARD XFN-AM120, is available. Cardanol based epoxy hardeners Novocard XFN products are liquid cardanol/formaldehyde novolacs designed to be used as curing agent in formulating heat cured bisphenol- A and bisphenol-F epoxy resins. Their long alkenyl side chains impart flexibility in cured epoxy resins. The intrinsic properties of the phenolic structure are chemical resistance, heat and flame resistance. Novocard XFN can also be used as polyols for polyurethane formulations. Cardanol based epoxy monomer and resins Epocard XFN are epoxy monomers and resins suitable for composite manufacture and coating applications which are available in a wide range of viscosities. The alkyl side chain of the phenolic ring enhances the final product flexibility, while the phenolic structure enhances chemical resistance, heat and flame durability. Epoxy Equivalent Weight and their formulation can be tailored for any end-use. - MT References: CTS-Materials Divison Brochure wikipedia Tullo, Alexander H.: (September 8, 2008). „A Nutty Chemical“. Chemical and Engineering News 86 (36): 26–27. Senning, Alexander: (2006). Elsevier‘s Dictionary of Chemoetymology. Elsevier. ISBN 0444522395 Ikeda, Ryohei et. al.: (2000). „A new crosslinkable polyphenol from a renewable resource“. Macromolecular Rapid Communications 21 (8): 496–499. www.ctsusa.us bioplastics MAGAZINE [05/09] Vol. 4 29

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