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Basics Logos Part 6: A

Basics Logos Part 6: A number of products made from bioplastics are already on the market. Almost all of them are labelled with some kind of a logo that tells the consumer about the special character of the plastic material used. In this series of articles the logos and their background are introduced by bioplastics MAGAZINE. Here we address such questions as: What is the origin and history of a logo? What does it mean? Which type of legislation or regulation is it concerned with? In previous issues bioplastics MAGAZINE introduced six different logos that inform consumers about the biodagradability or compostability of packaging and other products made of bioplastics. Before we start a new series in 2008, where we introduce logos informing about the biobased origin of bioplastics products, we‘d like to summarize the compostable/biodegradable logos in the following table. But also in future issues, we will inform our readers about all modifications, consolidations or cooperations which might arise about the existing logos. Logo Name Association Meaning Certifying institute(s) Countries Compostability Mark, called „the Seedling“ (bM 01/2006) The “Compostable” logo of BPI (bM 02/2006) The “OK Compost” logo (bM 01/2007) European Bioplastics Biodegradable Products Institute, USA Vinçotte, Belgium compostable bioplastic products according to EN 13432, ASTM D 6400, ISO 17088 compostable products according to ASTM D 6400 (Compostable Plastics) or ASTM D6868 (Compostable Packaging) compostable bioplastic packaging according to EN 13432 DIN-Certco (D), The Composting Association (UK), Keurmerk Instituut (NL), Cobro (PL). (others to follow) BPI Vinçotte, Belgium Germany, Switzerland, the Netherlands, Poland and the United Kongdom. In Austria the label is used in model projects in Linz and St. Pölten. European Bioplastics promotes the use of product certification and the use of a unified label in Europe USA, Canada Belgium, France The Finnish Apple (bM 02/2007) Finnish Solid Waste Association, FSWA mainly for compostable biowaste bags, certified in line with EN 13432 Finnish Solid Waste Association, FSWA Finnland The Norwegian Apple (bM 02/2007) Avfall Norge (Waste Management Norway, formerly NRF) mainly for compostable biowaste bags, certified in line with EN 13432 Avfall Norge (Waste Management Norway, formerly NRF) Norway “GreenPla” logo Japan (bM 03/2007) Japan BioPlastics Association(JBPA) Biodegradability according to Japanese and international standards such as ISO 14851, 14852, 14855 Japan BioPlastics Association (JBPA) Japan 36 bioplastics MAGAZINE [07/04] Vol. 2

Basics Glossary Glossary Readers who know better explanations or who would like to suggest other explanations to be added to the list, please contact the editor. [*: bM ... refers to more comprehensive article previously published in bioplastics MAGAZINE) In bioplastics MAGAZINE again and again the same expressions appear that some of our readers might (not yet) be familiar with. This glossary shall help with these terms and shall help avoid repeated explanations such as „PLA (Polylactide)“ in various articles. Amylopectin Polymeric branched starch molecule with very high molecular weight (biopolymer, monomer is à Glucose). Amyloseacetat Linear polymeric glucose-chains are called à amylose. If this compound is treated with ethan acid one product is amylacetat. The hydroxyl group is connected with the organic acid fragment. Amylose Polymeric non-branched starch molecule with high molecular weight (biopolymer, monomer is à Glucose). Biodegradable Plastics Biodegradable Plastics are plastics that are completely assimilated by the à microorganisms present a defined environment as food for their energy. The carbon of the plastic must completely be converted into CO 2 .during the microbial process. For an official definition, please refer to the standards e.g. ISO or in Europe: EN 14995 Plastics- Evaluation of compostability - Test scheme and specifications. [bM* 02/2006 p. 34f, bM 01/2007 p38]. Blend Mixture of plastics, polymer alloy of at least two microscopically dispersed and molecularly distributed base polymers. Cellophane Clear film on the basis of à cellulose. Cellulose Polymeric molecule with very high molecular weight (biopolymer, monomer is à Glucose), industrial production from wood or cotton, to manufacture paper, plastics and fibres. Compost A soil conditioning material of decomposing organic matter which provides nutrients and enhances soil structure. Compostable Plastics Plastics that are biodegradable under “composting“ conditions: specified humidity, temperature, à microorganisms and timefame. Several national and international standards exist for clearer definitions, for example EN 14995 Plastics - Evaluation of compostability - Test scheme and specifications [bM 02/2006 p. 34f, bM 01/2007 p38]. Composting A solid waste management technique that uses natural process to convert organic materials to CO 2 , water and humus through the action of à microorganisms. Copolymer Plastic composed of different monomers. Fermentation Biochemical reactions controlled by à microorganisms or enyzmes (e.g. the transformation of sugar into lactic acid). Gelatine Translucent brittle solid substance, colorless or slightly yellow, nearly tasteless and odorless, extracted from the collagen inside animals‘ connective tissue. Glucose Monosaccharide (or simple sugar). G. is the most important carbohydrate (sugar) in biology. G. is formed by photosynthesis or hydrolyse of many carbohydrates e. g. starch. bioplastics MAGAZINE [07/04] Vol. 2 37

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