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A_MAT_95x277.indd 1 bioplastics MAGAZINE [05/08] Vol. 3 33 20 08 08 12:16:19 Uhr additives. Several technologies are under development for bioplastics. One key development has focused on adapting a unique microbial transformation technology developed for treating waste water from paper and pulp mills into a process for making PHA bioplastics from industrial waste waters. Novel proprietary microbial, bioreactor and postproduction processes have been developed. The preferred process uses bacteria which can directly fix nitrogen from the atmosphere and convert carbon in wastes into useful bio-based polymers. This technology has now been proven in large scale trials, including 1000 litre scale at Scion. Aspects will be presented at the forthcoming International Symposium on Biological Polyesters (ISBP 2008), to be held in Palmerston North, New Zealand in 23- 27 November 2008. Example 2: Fruit/Crop Waste Utilisation Scion has undertaken various surveys of industrial waste streams in New Zealand to identify the most likely significant sources of available biomass wastes. In addition to forestry and its various downstream processing operations, certain sectors of the food processing and wider horticultural and agricultural industries were identified as major sources of wastes which contained useful biopolymers or biopolymer feedstocks of potential use in Scion’s technologies for bioplastic products. As one example, in the case of kiwifruit, and through a more recent study commissioned by Zespri TM , a survey identified ~50,000 tonnes per year of waste biomass from the kiwifruit industry alone. Most of this is either landfilled or given to farmers as cattle feed. Neither of these options are sustainable on an ongoing basis for such volumes of organic waste, and are increasingly disfavoured. Scion has developed technologies to use this type of waste stream as a potential source for bioplastics or bioplastics products. Several scenarios for using waste fruit or vegetables have been identified. The bio-based polymers and chemicals in fruit waste have many attributes, with the added advantage of being renewably produced and biodegradable. Other non-food resources such as ‘green waste’ or even cow-poo have been studied for use in bioplastics. The transformation of such wastes, and the selected use of co-additives with the modified waste derived bio-based polymers, can produce useful plastics, adhesives, coatings or composites. If appropriately formulated and processed, they can also reduce the overall cost of the final product and impart new functional attributes. Through studying the interactions of biomass wastes with commercial biopolymers, Scion has created a range of novel wastederived industrial products including biodegradable pots and other moulded plastic products, all containing various types and amounts of processed and modified biomass waste streams. PRODUCT ENGINEERING IN MOTION MATERIALICA 2008 11th International Trade Fair for Material Applications, Surface Technology and Product Engineering October 14 – 16, 2008 / New Munich Trade Fair Centre ACCOMPANYING CONFERENCES • Composites in Automotive & Aerospace • Lightweight metal design by means of near-net-shape fabrication • European Technology Transfer Conference: Security • Innovative design and bionically inspired construction for new products • Component optimization by means of intelligent surface functions and structures • Advanced ceramics for future applications • Boatbuilding with GFRP, carbon and aluminum: Material and processes S SU R FAC E M METAL LIGHT C C E R A M I C S PRODUCT ENGINEERING IN MOTION Phone+49(89)322991-0 2008 2008 2008 2008

Non-Food Example 3: Use Of Lignins/Lignocelluosics In Bioplastics Scion is working with a range of ‘waste generators’ to identify how best to use their wastes in bioplastics and related industrial polymer products, and to measure and improve sustainability profiles in their value chains. Life Cycle Assessments (LCA) and carbon-footprinting are increasingly used to guide the research and technology developments. As another example, research is ongoing into the utilisation of lignin, the second most abundant natural polymer. It is a residue from pulp and paper processing, and indeed from biofuels or other processing of lignocellulosic materials. By exploiting synergies across its various research programmes in biofuels, pulp & paper, waste treatment and bioplastics Scion has a focus on developing new technologies for lignin utilisation. Its use as a plastically processable polymer through direct modification and formulation strategies, or as an additive for use in combination with other bioplastics and additives is being investigated. Novel highly lignin-rich compounds have been successfully extruded and injection moulded. Example 4: Use Of Wood Fibers In Bioplastics Another Scion development, aimed at enhancing further the performance of bioplastics and using non-food resources, is the manufacturing of reinforced bioplastic products with wood fibres. Most prior developments, including Scion’s work in the distant past, have used sawdust or wood flours as low cost additives for plastics and bioplastics. However, this type of manufacturing does not fully use the wood fibres’ reinforcing potential since they are ground up and have largely destroyed the actual fibres. In the fibre board manufacturing industry, the technology exists to extract fibre from timber, but the `cotton wool’ like material it produces is unsuitable for feeding into conventional plastics machinery. Scion has developed a cost-effective way to turn these fibres into pellets in a way that does not damage the fibres. The patented wood-fibre process, which includes the use of 34 bioplastics MAGAZINE [05/08] Vol. 3

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